Wednesday, November 7, 2012

Rh negative blood type and pregnancy


Blood type is based on specific molecules (called antigens) that "sit" on the surface of red blood cells.People on their red blood cells can have A antigens (type A), B antigens (type B), both antigen (blood group AB) or neither (type 0).



When we talk about the Rh factor (Rhesus factor or), some people have the antigen (Rh +), and some people do not (Rh -). In other words, your blood type is determined by which of the antigen have blood. Rh positive child inherits genes from its father.

Rh sensitivity can be prevented

During pregnancy, Rh negative factor alone of all the blood types that causes problems. An Rh-negative mother produces antibodies (part of the immune system's response to unknown substances) against the Rh pozitinih blood cells, even those of her own child. This is called Rh sensitization.

Most of Rh negative mothers first child birth without difficulty, even though the mother after giving birth can be "sensitive" to the Rh-positive blood that enters into her blood, and in the next pregnancy may Rh sensitivity.

The antibodies cross the placenta and attack fetal red blood cells, which can reduce them urokovati (hemolytic anemia), congestive heart failure, and even death of the fetus. This is called hemolytic disease.Luckily, Rh sensitivity can be prevented by a drug called Rh immunoglobulin (RhIg, or Rhogam ™). Since the development of these drugs in 1968. Fewer and fewer mothers with Rh sensitization.

How does the Rh immune globulin?

Rh negative mother develops antibodies against Rh-positive blood cells (becomes sensitive) only if fetal blood crosses the placenta and enters her bloodstream. Her immune system recognizes these cells as "enemy" and mounts an immune response. Injection of Rh immunoglobulin blocking the mother's immune system from seeing the fetal cells. So, if you do happen to stop moving to the mother's body, the mother will become Rh sensitive and will start to produce antibodies.

Who should take the Rh immune globulin?

RhIg is given to all Rh-negative women whose fetuses after blood tests can be Rh positive. As already stated, the fetus may be Rh positive if the father is Rh positive. If both parents are Rh negative, they can only have Rh-negative offspring.

When you are given Rh immune globulin?

RhIg be given during pregnancy when it is probable that the Rh-positive fetal blood crosses the mother's bloodstream. So, given:

-In the case of amniocentesis
-Atypical miscarriage or pregnancy
Selective abortion-
-About 26 weeks of pregnancy (which protects the rest of the pregnancy)
-After giving birth
-Blood type is controlled by the baby's birth. If it is determined that the baby is also Rh negative, RhIg dose usually given at birth, it is not required.

What happens when a Rh negative mother becomes "sensitive"?

Fortunately, today it is very rare that a Rh negative mother becomes osjetlljiva. If women develop antibodies against the Rh-positive cells, it will be detected. Rh negative pregnant women undergo a special glucose test, called the indirect Coombs test. This examination can determine whether the mother has developed antibodies to fetal blood.

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