Saturday, March 31, 2012

Pregnancy by weeks - SECOND TRIMESTER (16-27 weeks)

Pregnancy week by week / second trimester / 16 week
hiccup-baby
On the 16th week begins the second trimester of pregnancy.

The mother
During the 16th weeks of continued future growth of the uterus, which is now rising about 2 finger breadths above the pubic bone. Except this time the baby in the womb and already contains 250 ml of amniotic fluid.
In this time of the mammary glands begin producing which leads to swelling and breast tenderness. Due to the increased blood flow to the breasts, and intensive development of the alveoli leads to a significant increase in the breast, and often expressed the view veins and small bumps around the areola that are marked as nodule Montgomery.

If pregnant women do not come first in the combined screening trimester of pregnancy or the results of this screening are complex, there is the possibility of performing biochemical tests in the second trimester, but their accuracy in assessing the risk of Down syndrome is significantly lower. These tests include double screening (double test), tri screening (triple test) and quadruple screening (quadruple test), whereas the latter does not perform in our country. Screening tests in the second trimester are at all uncertain: of 1,000 women surveyed, an abnormal result is obtained in 50 women - while in fact only one or two of them is really sick and fruit. By determining the AFP can determine whether there is a suspicion of neural tube defects (spina bifida, anencephalia, omphalocoela).
Double and triple screening allow the comparison of certain biochemical parameters in blood of pregnant women (estriol and free-ßhCG the double test, and estriol, beta-hCG and alpha-fetoprotein in triple test) and its age with a standard curve and thereby estimate the individual risk for Down's syndrome. The accuracy of the test itself is estimated at 60 - 70%. The test is usually performed between 15 to 18. weeks of pregnancy.
Amniocentesis (abdominal wall puncture and aspiration of amniotic fluid) is the only absolutely certain test when it comes to the detection of Down syndrome. Under ultrasound control is entering a fine needle into the amniotic cavity and takes 10-20 ml of amniotic fluid which is then isolated and cultured fetal cells and determines their genetic code. The risk of miscarriage after the procedure is 1%, which corresponds to the risk of performing chorionic villus biopsy in the first trimester.
Before you decide to carry out prenatal diagnosis to consider what you personally mean to have a sick child, or the consequences of positive tests carry with them for you personally.

Your Baby
Progressing the development of muscles and bones of your baby. In particular, advances development of finer facial muscles, so your baby can blink, mouth open or hold up your head and frown. Progressing disposal of calcium in bones. Continued intensive development of genital glands: in case of a female fetus baby's ovaries contain about 5 million eggs. This number will grow for a while, and then perform their atresia, so that the little girl born with only about 2 million eggs.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is long, 14-16 cm, and weighs 80-120 g.

Advice
There are different opinions and attitudes of gynecologists regarding sports and recreational activities during pregnancy. The attitude of the older generation of gynecologists to sport in general strengthens the pelvic floor muscle, and delivery time is quite difficult to dismiss - especially when it comes to dealing with professional sports such as horseback riding or sailing. Moderate sports activity, particularly the type of swimming, walking and light exercise are not only permitted, but very recommended during pregnancy. Swimming strengthens muscles and increases strength. Exercise and walking improves circulation and digestion. Other types of sports are also permitted in moderate limits - especially when you think it your pleasure, and not the outcome!
However, when it comes to any kind of complications in pregnancy, especially in cardiovascular diseases, diabetes in pregnancy, just preležene infection, in the case of a multiple pregnancy or spontaneous abortion and premature births in previous pregnancies - beware!
General recommendations:
• If you are healthy and have no problems in pregnancy, sports activities are permitted, as long as they make you satisfaction and in doing so you are well. In doing so, your pulse should not exceed 130 bps (strokes / minute).
• It is particularly recommended for swimming, walking and light gymnastic exercises.
• When swimming, the water temperature should not be below 20 ° C or exceed 35 ° C.
• If this is a difficult sport disciplines such as running, rowing, cycling and skiing you should make sure that your commitment to remain well below your limit.
• Sports activities that substantially burden the joints (judo, handball) or are associated with strong shaking of the body or the risk of falls (skiing, skating, horseback riding, tennis, etc.) should avoid during the entire duration of pregnancy.
If the visits to the sauna, you do not have to necessarily give up your pleasure during pregnancy. For the recommended precautions: Avoid the Sauna within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy which occurs during embryonic development of organs. In this time of fever pregnant women may be a factor in the emergence of various damage embryonic basis. At the end of pregnancy to avoid swimming in the pool shortly after a visit to the sauna (avoidance of shock due to cold).
The good side of the sauna:
• shorten the duration of labor and relieve pain of birth;
• stimulates the defense capability of the skin and reduces susceptibility to infection;
• a kind of training the blood vessels of the skin reduces the accumulated tissue fluid and prevents the formation of varicose veins and thrombosis;
• leads to a significant sweating: it acidic substances in the sweat strengthen acidic layer of the skin and in this way reduces the number of unwanted bacteria on the skin.
Atmosphere in the sauna should be waived if there is suspicion of premature contractions and premature labor, and other diseases of pregnancy such as infections or diseases of the cardiovascular system.


Pregnancy week by week / second trimester / 17 week

During the early 16th weeks of pregnancy there was a final development of the placenta and the placenta is now fully mature organ.

The mother
Final completion of the development means the development of placental tertiary stem chorionic villi, and thinning of the membrane separating maternal and fetal blood flow to only about 5 mm. The total area of ​​chorionic villi will continue to grow during pregnancy, so that in the 28th week amount to 4.8 m2 in late pregnancy, at 40 week even 12-14 m2. The chorionic villi are usually organized structures: distinguish between primary lobes (cotyledons, which has 15 - 20), each of which contains 5-6 secondary lobes. A secondary villi contains a dozen tertiary villi, and each makes the tertiary villi of placenta lobules, which is the basic unit of placental material. One cotyledon contains 50-60 lobulus.
Continued growth of the uterus which is the bottom (fundus) is now somewhere around the middle of the pubic bone and navel. The following is a further increase in the breast, and may occur, and stretch marks - a very fine red or brown stripes on the skin due to stretching of the skin. After delivery, stripes will gradually fade away and get bjekasti or silvery sheen. This is the time to choose a custom-made bra and start using some of the cream for stretch marks. Custom-made bra means bra baskets and ribbons below them must not be tight, and the straps should be wide and padded so as not to commit, in the shoulder.

Your Baby
The baby is now fully covered with fuzzy hairs (lanugo hair). Baby's skin is still thin and has no visible body fat.The main step for your baby this week is the beginning of creation and disposal of brown adipose tissue. This is a special kind of fat is very important in the production of heat.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is long, 16-18 cm, and weighing about 180 g.

Advice
It's hard to be a pregnant woman and be spared the pain in his back! The reason is simple: to ensure delivery was even possible pregnancy hormones for some time before birth soften connective tissue and cartilage of the pelvic joints and vertebrae. This softening has some negative side of a pregnant woman: uterus enlarged and softened its weight presses more closely the front of the spine. For the same reasons there is a deepening of the lumbar lordosis, or curvature of the spine in the lumbar area. The result is back pain.
Back pain occurs primarily during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. You can help:
• swimming (especially swimming backstroke), maternity gymnastics and wearing comfortable shoes;
• If you sit at work, you'll need a chair with adequate back support;
• as often as you can, try to relax in the supine position. It is best to lie on her side: turns left or right side;
• sciatica-type pain in the leg with the expansion olakašati you through massage. The pregnancy is not recommended for heating the back, so can cause premature contractions;
• Do not wear corsets for pregnant women! Allow your muscles to take on additional burdens and empower them to moderate exercise. Wearing a girdle muscles become weaker still, and the only time disposing of complaints.
Beware of back pain that accompanied the appearance of lymph or light bleeding! In this case, be sure to consult your gynecologist!

3D ultrasound: fetal spine, and spina bifida

Spina bifida is the name for cleft spine, which arises due to incomplete closure of the neural tube during the process of embryogenesis. Spina bifida is usually an isolated disorder, which occurs in 0.5 - 1/1.000 birth, and one of the most common congenital anomalies incompatible with life. Most scientists believe are necessary for its development of joint effects of genetic and environmental factors. In the prevention of neural tube defects is recommended to take folic acid at the lowest dose 400 - 800 micrograms / day, at least three months before planning pregnancy.


Pregnancy week by week / second trimester / 18 week

If this is not a first pregnancy, this week you could feel the first movements of your baby.

The mother
Do not be disappointed if this is your first pregnancy - and that you have read and primiparae felt the first stirrings of a child in the 18 week of pregnancy! For that feeling you have more time (especially if your weight in pounds that appeared redundant) - at least the next two weeks. Many mothers say that this feeling can not be described, most pregnant women describe these movements, such as indigestion or removing the wings of butterflies in the stomach.

Your Baby
The first movements of your baby that you feel does not mean that it is commonly said that the baby came to life, because whatever you could see your baby's ultrasound is very much alive, but the fifth weeks of pregnancy when the heart was told her heart. With the first motion that you feel the baby shows you how much is grown and how much is present alone.
At this time completed the ossification of small bones of the inner ear, and the development of that part of the brain that receives and processes sound signals, so that by the time your baby can hear sounds coming from outside. At the same time advancing changes in the retina of the eye, which becomes sensitive to light.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is long, 18-21 cm, and weighs 180-235 g.

Advice
The typical symptoms of pregnancy are certainly the following problems:
• a sense of tension and heaviness in the legs;
• cramps in the calves, and a sense of numbness in the legs;
• swelling of feet and the accumulated fluid around the ankles and lower legs;
• appearance of varicose veins in the legs.
These problems occur especially in pregnant women who have already had that in performing their jobs have a lot of sitting or standing, a further burden on the family legacy game.

During pregnancy there is an increase circulating blood volume by about 30% of which are full of extra vascular pool placenta, and its and fetal blood vessels. In addition to in some way and reserves from these reserves is offset by loss of blood during childbirth. Of the total blood volume pregnant women, only 15% of the arterial blood vessels, and most - whole 85% in the venous blood system. On the other hand due to specific hormonal changes during pregnancy changes the elasticity of the veins, in terms of decreasing venous tone - what are the main reasons for the stagnation of blood in the venous blood system and the formation of varicose veins.
Increased uterine pressure on large blood vessels of the pelvis and legs increases blood stagnation in the lower limbs and also makes it difficult to transport the blood back to heart. Given the changing composition of blood (decrease in protein levels in the blood during pregnancy), decreases the force that keeps the liquid in the veins, resulting in leakage and its accumulation in the surrounding soft tissues. This creates islands (edema) during pregnancy.
The prevention of varicose veins may help the following procedures:
• Avoid standing for long stretches in one place or sitting down with your feet;
• If your workplace is coupled with ample seating, you need to get up and walk several times a day;
• The best protection from the occurrence of varicose veins is a walking, hiking, swimming and cycling;
• Excellent protection is wearing stockings for varicose veins. Do not forget to pull them back in bed until you got up!
• blood flow in the feet and lower legs so you can improve. Kneipp - alternating baths, hot and cold water.

3D ultrasound: fetal echocardiography

Fetal echocardiography indicates an ultrasound of the fetal heart, and the best time for this review was between 18 - 22 weeks of pregnancy. As the incidence of fetal malformations of the heart and up to 8% during pregnancy is necessary examination of the fetal heart by gynecologists perinatologist, and in case of any doubt and review specialist fetal echocardiography. Specific indications for fetal echocardiography include nuchal translucency greater than 3 mm during the first trimester, even if the fetus kariogram neat, diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, twin pregnancy, the occurrence of cardiac malformations in the mother or the family. Many of the fetal heart abnormalities detected during pregnancy can be operatively disposed in the first or the first four weeks after birth, which significantly improves the prognosis of the child.


Pregnancy week by week / second trimester / 19 week

Your baby is so great that unless the size by ultrasound, can be monitored and evaluated and its anatomy.

The mother
Continued growth of the uterus, placenta and increase fetal growth. Increased uterus now zaobljuje your body, there is a loss of profession, the change in your posture, and can affect sleep patterns. Continues to gain in total body weight, and now pay attention to the quantity and quality of your diet.
Do you want to make sure that the weight you get a result of weight gain in pregnancy (and not the accumulation of fluid) measure the extent of both the upper thighs throughout pregnancy. If you have gained weight, and extent of the thigh strazmjerno increased - it is the typical weight gain during pregnancy. Otherwise, it may be a discussion of the pathological accumulation of fluid which can cause other complications during pregnancy (preeclampsia), so be sure to consult your gynecologist.

Your Baby
Continued growth and development of the brain with finer differentiation of its functions. In the past few weeks, motor neurons (nerve cells), and cerebral nerves (their extensions) that connect the muscles and brain occupied their seats, and baby now consciously control their movements. The full swing is the process of myelination - wrapping of nerve protective fatty substance called myelin.
There are buds for permanent teeth, behind those for milk. The extremities are reaching the appropriate proportions.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is long, 20-23 mm, and weighs about 200 - 250 g.

Advice
Many pregnant women have sleep problems, especially in the last trimester of pregnancy and childbirth before, primarily because of back pain or cramps in the calves as well as increased belly that does not allow the favorite position for sleep. Sometimes these are the movements of a child during the night means a particularly strong move. The movements of the child at night seem more powerful, because pregnant women calmer and more relaxed.
May occur and mild tension, especially before birth, with the approach of his term. A lot can not be changed, and perhaps a few points following advice may help:
• evening to eat only a light meal, to give up heavy dinner;
• afternoon, do not drink more coffee or tea;
• instead of the evening sitting in front of a TV screen, get out and walk in the fresh air;
• Before going to sleep try relaxation techniques;
• If, after a short sleep wake up, get up and walk freely around the apartment, let me divert your attention to other things;
• a glass of warm milk or herbal tea (chamomile, lemon balm, Baldrian, hops) may induce sleep. Take medication to sleep only if allowed by your gynecologist.

3D ultrasound: cervikometrija - Y cerivksa form and create a "funnel"

Cervikometrija označue ultrasound of the cervix: cervical length measurement, the study looks inside the mouth of the cervical canal. On ultrasound examination the cervix at this time of T seems to be the opening of the inner estuary is shown as Y, V or the cervix, usually when there is prolabiranja membranes. Cervikometrija is a very important part of antenatal care, as palpacijski gynecological examination can not detect the appearance and condition of the inner estuary, or objekitvno determine the length of the cervix.


Pregnancy week by week / second trimester / 20 week

The feeling of the first movement of the child in the first pregnancy - pregnancy in the first pregnancy.

The mother
In your look more nikakovih no doubt is whether or not pregnant: your waist is significantly expanded, the more it really does not have a uterus stick out belly out. The highest point of the uterus (fundus) now reaches almost navel (one to two finger breadths below the navel). With the growth of the uterus may begin to occur due to problems of compression of surrounding organs: the pressure on the stomach, kidneys and lungs. The consequences of this pressure could be worse indigestion, frequent urination, and shortness of breath during exertion. Due to the considerable stretching of the skin with frequent stretch marks.

Your Baby
The development, differentiation and thickening of the skin layers. Special fatty glands produce wax (creamy wax) a substance called vernix caseosa, and held on the skin due to the presence of lanugo hairs. Vernix is ​​extremely important to protect your baby's skin from the amniotic fluid macerirajućeg action.

They begin to significantly grow hair, and toenails.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is long, 22-25 cm, and weighs about 280 - 350 g.

Advice
After konterganske disaster (Contergan tab) 60.ih early last century (fokomelije phenomena - as in limbs of similar seals in children whose mothers were taking medication during pregnancy Contergan) has sharply increased awareness of what a drug can make the pregnancy. Despite these data, it is still 80% of patients taking different medicines in the first trimester of pregnancy. Here are the first line of an anti-nausea medication, anti-prison, and vitamin preparations and thyroid hormones.
In some situations may arise complications of pregnancy life-threatening pregnant women or children, so that medical therapy is unavoidable. In such cases the decision must be made on drugs your doctor. And usually, especially in pregnancy do not take medication on your own.
Drugs that are prohibited in pregnancy:
• live virus vaccines, such as a vaccine against mumps, measles, rubella and tuberculosis. These vaccines do not have a direct teratogenic effect, but lead to forgiving body temperature thereby accelerating the number of cell divisions, and the greater the possibility of error, and the occurrence of anomalies.
• barbiturates: these drugs pass the placenta and can cause your child's tendency to bleeding.
• methotrexate: it is a cytostatic, which can cause significant damage to the embryo.
• MAO inhibitors: the anti-depression should not be used during pregnancy since the official information about fetal anomalies or deficiencies in child behavior contradictory content.
• oral antidiabetic drugs: tablets for diabetes should be for three months before planning pregnancy replaced with insulin, because of their potential for development of fetal damage.
• high dose of iodine preparations: a disinfecting wounds, some funds cough or radiographic contrast agents containing iodine can cause goiter and thyroid hyperfunction in your baby.
• Tetracyclines: Antibiotics may interfere with the development of the skeletal system and cause a yellowish discoloration of your baby teeth.
Drugs that are undesirable in pregnancy:
In the first trimester if possible, avoid antacids, metronidazole and acetilisalicilnu acid, a sulfonamide during the entire pregnancy, tijazida type diuretics, benzodiazepines and alkaloids rye equity.


Pregnancy week by week / second trimester / 21 week

With this week the first half of pregnancy is behind you, and you enter into its second half.

The mother
The second trimester of pregnancy is a period when something increases weight gain. We say that, actually, in the second trimester of pregnancy increase the actual caloric needs of pregnant women - in all some 200 to 300 kcal / day due to increased thyroid function and increase the basal metabolic rate. Pay attention not only how but also what you eat: avoid junk and oily foods, and foods to nibble a little beneficial ingredients.

Your Baby
Progressing the development of the digestive system, and the language of babies develop taste buds. From the baby's intestines at this time can resorbirati water and sugar, there is peristalsis, but the baby does not empty the colon during their intrauterine life.
Baby's blood cells, primarily red blood cells (erythrocytes) are produced in early pregnancy žumanjčanoj bag, and then mainly in the liver. At this time, the first production of the white blood cells (leukocytes) that are necessary to fight off infection.
Your baby's eyelids are still sealed and gently closed.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is long, 25-28 cm, and weighing about 350-390 g.

Advice
Pregnancy is a time where we insist on compulsory regular vaccination of pregnant women, although all vaccines are contraindicated in pregnancy. Certainly the fundamental rule is not to be vaccinated with live virus vaccines (vaccines against measles, rubella, mumps, and tuberculosis), not even when it is weakened strains of the virus because in that situation, the expected damage to the fetus. The effect of these vaccines is not a direct teratogenic effect, but these vaccines lead to an increase in body temperature and the number of cell divisions and thereby increases the possibility of an anomaly.
The exception to this rule are vaccines against polyomyelitisa and yellow fever, against which a pregnant woman can and should be vaccinated if traveling during pregnancy for various reasons in areas where there is a risk of these infections (Central Africa, South America, Southeast Asia).
If a pregnant woman during pregnancy comes into contact with patients with measles, rubella or variccelle, and it is not known whether and catch the disease itself and the disease, it is necessary to control the level of antibodies in the blood and to determine its immune status. In the absence of antibodies against these pathogens infection, vaccination is carried out instead of protective immunoglobulin therapy. When it comes to contact with tuberculosis patients, the immune status of pregnant women are tested using a tuberculin test.
In the case of vaccinated containing bits of dead bacteria or virus, then the vaccination of pregnant women and can be allowed, as in cases of direct contact and the prevention of travel to endemic areas during the whole pregnancy. This is about the following diseases:
• polyomyelitis
• Influenza
• Hepatitis B
• Tetanus
• Diphtheria
• typhoid
• cholera
• krpeljski encephalitis
• frenzy.


Pregnancy week by week / second trimester / 22 week

This is the best time for a detailed ultrasound examination and assessment of fetal anatomy, a good position for your baby and you'll probably find out her gender. This ultrasound examination is commonly known as "anomaly scan".

The mother
This is a time when the most pronounced physiological anemia: namely during pregnancy leads to increased amounts of circulating blood, and so that the volume of liquid - the plasma increases by about 30%, while the volume of the hard parts - the blood cells increases only by 25% making appearances physiological blood dilution - dilution or physiological anemia in pregnancy. The measure of dilution of the blood hematocrit.Although the physiological anemia natural occurrence check your blood tests and consult with a health care provider if your iron intake is sufficient.

Your Baby
This week continues with completing the development of brain nerve cells - neurons and the development of feeling and awareness of your baby. The sense of touch is the first sense that matures through the senses your baby learns about his body: how to move the limbs, where the different body parts and how do they interrelate.Your baby can now feel my face, and beating hands and feet. Now you can distinguish between periods of activity and sleep your baby. The baby knows all too often be particularly active at the precise moment when you are calm, relaxed and at ease.
Uterus - the first classroom
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is long, 25-30 cm, and weighing about 380-420 g.

Advice
Very rare but very serious infection is toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. The cause of this infection is toxoplasmosis, a parasite that is transmitted to humans through cat feces and undercooked or over grilled meats and unwashed fruit and vegetables. In primary infection during pregnancy (with toxoplasmosis may be a first infection - primary infection and re-infection - reinfection) there is a significant risk of infection in children. Since toxoplasmosis goes into the fetal bloodstream just after 16 weeks of pregnancy, absent the development of severe fetal anomalies, but due to child infection can lead to intrauterine death.
In less than 50% of pregnant women in case of infection is only slight symptoms similar gripalnoj infection such as mild fever, malaise, muscle aches, diarrhea and possibly short-lived slightly swollen lymph nodes, especially the lymph nodes of the neck. The serological diagnostics - determine the titre of antibodies against toxoplasmosis in blood, and the present signs of infection followed by obligatory medical therapy.
In some countries such as Austria and France - as well as neighboring Slovenia, within antentalne protection at the beginning of pregnancy and be sure to determine the titre of antibodies against toxoplasmosis, which is our recommendation. Thus it is possible to determine individual risk and the negative test to take all precautions during pregnancy to avoid these dangerous infections, such as:
• If you have a cat in your household, be sure to take them to veterinary examination targeted to toxoplasmosis;
• If infection is ruled out, pay attention to your cat's contact with other cats;
• Do not feed your cat fresh meat;
• Cleaning your cat let another member of your family or bring it with rubber gloves;
• when working in the garden wearing gloves;
• Do not eat raw meat during pregnancy (steak tartare), nor under-cooked or roasted meat, do not drink uncooked milk or eating unwashed fruits and fresh vegetables.


Pregnancy week by week / second trimester / 23 week

In this week you may start to feel Braxton Hicks contractions.

The mother
Braxton-Hicks contractions are irregular, painless contractions rehearsing - contraction of the uterus and cervix are in preparation for childbirth. With advancing pregnancy, uterine contractions will become stronger, but the main feature of this contraction will be their lack of action on the cervix - the cervix, and will come to its shortening or opening. These are also the main features of maternity or labor contractions - their effective functioning of the cervix, as well as the suppression of the child to the output channels of maternity.
These contractions can be recorded using cardiotocography (CTG), which is used primarily for recording your baby's heart rate and motor activity of the uterus (especially in the later stages of pregnancy, or for special indications) on continuous printing.

Your Baby
Your baby still looks too thin - the growth and development of the skin is faster than the creation of the subcutaneous adipose tissue, although this time the fat forms a very intensive. Baby's skin is no longer transparent, but by allowing the pigment begins to be reddish.
The movements of the baby can be very much alive, in the form of kicking and punching, but also very gentle.At this time your baby feels his surroundings, and the umbilical cord - fetoskopski images show that the baby knows how to play with the umbilical cord and the membrane that surrounds them ("fetal grasping"). In one case the handles can catch the umbilical cord, the other in your face or rub the handles on the membrane that surrounds it.
At this time you may notice your baby's hiccups and that is the result of swallowing the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid and sugar that it contains significant energy supplement nutrients that babies normally receives through the umbilical cord.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is long, 28-31 cm, and weighs about 400 - 450 g.

Advice
Like the rest of the population, so pregnant women are not spared from the waves gripalne infection that usually occur in spring and autumn every year. Fortunately, the common cold or flu will not leave marks on your pregnancy and your child. Because of the altered immune response in pregnancy, common cold or flu can last a little longer.
Try the following tips to overcome several flu, but in its infancy, so you do not earn a couple of serious complications such as sinusitis, tonsillitis, bronchitis or pneumonia in pregnancy:
• Pay attention to adequate intake of fluids, especially if you have a fever, sweat excessively, you sneeze or runny nose;
• Try to solve the high temperature in a natural way of avoiding drugs: use cold compresses, wearing wide clothes, drink moderately cold drinks;
• if the fever does not stop or suddenly jumps definitely inform your doctor;
• Use medication only after consulting your doctor;
• Eat regularly, whether or not you have an appetite;
• Ensure you sleep, lay just over the head so that the airway free paths;
• For sore throat or cough pomognite inhalations with essential oils.
Vaccination during pregnancy is not only not harmful, but is especially recommended for pregnant women who will give birth during the winter months, in the midst of flu season


Pregnancy week by week / second trimester / 24 week

Although in the case of premature births in this age of numerous complications occur, 24 week of pregnancy is taken as the limit of survival. Early preterm birth is a marker for preterm delivery between 24 - 34 weeks of pregnancy.

The mother
Continues, further growth of the uterus, with its top (fundus) now reaches your belly button. Excessive weight gain and increased body weight can be significantly above this threshold. In such cases, it is definitely recommended for a glucose tolerance test - OGTT ("oral glucose tolerance test"). The test is done very simply: before and 120 minutes after taking a drink of sugar determines the level of glucose in the blood of pregnant women. In this way, check glucose tolerance (increased levels in the blood), and the adequacy of responses pancreas (insulin secretion). This is also a screening test to detect diabetes in pregnancy (gestational diabetes).
If the code you found to have gestational diabetes, insulin therapy is not further necessary. Pay attention especially to your diet:
• Avoid foods high in sugars (especially sweets) and drinks (cola, fanta, juices, lemonade);
• If you use sugar to sweeten coffee or tea, do so very sparingly;
• in your diet give priority foods with carbohydrates that are high in vitamins such as potatoes, whole pasta, wholemeal bread and brown rice, and foods that are rich in ballast substances (vegetables);
• divide your daily food intake into 6 small meals;
• consider the possibility of consulting your doctor about your diet with experienced diabetologom, especially if your weight is very high.

Your Baby
Form of the baby and her face takes on more the appearance of which we are accustomed: the eyes have moved closer to the distance that is normal and they are still closed, and ears have completed its journey and it was where it should be. On the eyelids grow eyelashes, a head hair grows even stronger. The baby looks almost the same as it will look when it arrives.
Pay attention to your baby and scared to react in the event that you experience a shock. Research shows that the fruit remains disturbed for a longer period after the shock, where it can manifest itself in two ways: as excessive movement or calm tensions
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is long, 30-35 cm, and weighing about 500 g.

Advice
Unfortunately, during pregnancy there may be severe acute diseases and conditions that may require emergency surgery. This includes the following diseases and conditions:
• acute appendicitis
• ileus (bowel tangles)
• Ovarian cysts and tumors
• different bleeding into the free abdominal cavity.
In all of these diseases and conditions occur from nausea and vomiting, strong stomach pains and kolapsno state, all of which can be masked in the very similar symptoms of pregnancy, and thus make it difficult to set up a proper diagnosis.
If you have any symptoms that last more powerful, do not be shy to consult your doctor, even if it was a false alarm.
The risk of modern anesthesia is due to modern methods is minimal. There was also no increased risk of miscarriage or premature labor in so far as could be expected.


Pregnancy week by week / second trimester / 25 week

In 25th week of pregnancy, the uterus begins izdizati above the navel.

The mother
Uterine growth and rising above the navel, there is significant pressure especially on the stomach. For this reason, the emptying of food from the stomach a little slower, so there is a feeling of fullness and a feeling of heartburn, especially after abundant meals. Stick to the rules of the diet that you learned at the beginning of your pregnancy: 6 - 8 small meals / day.

Your Baby
Further progress in the growth of your baby's first of all means of mass growth and maturation of the baby's central nervous system. At this time it appears the tendency to use the right or left hand. They begin to develop the lines of the fingers, giving your baby a unique fingerprint. At this time the baby already has his own habits and activity rhythms and sleep. Type your baby's heart can be heard and your partner and without special tools, if you leaned your ear to the right place and if there is no noise.
The external genitals with your baby is now fully developed. The testicles are descended into the scrotum, a vagina gets its cavity. Differences in gender are very well identifiable, yet doubts remain rare due to the plight of children in the ultrasound examination.

Length and weight babies:
Your baby is long, 30-34 cm and weighs 600-700 g.

Advice
Frequent urination occurs from the lack of menstrual periods - almost as the first symptom of pregnancy. The reason is of course increased the pressure on the bladder, uterus, and hormonal changes in pregnancy.Symptoms are somewhat calm after the 12th week when the uterus is lifted out of the pelvis. In late pregnancy, around 36th weeks and entering into a small bowl heads, and its adjustment for birth, re-growing pressure on the bladder and frequent urination.
If the frequent urination, burning sensation and appear painful pressure on the bladder (painful pressure in the lower abdomen, low front) increases the likelihood that it is an inflammatory process affecting the bladder. If these symptoms are accompanied by pain in the lumbar area, usually right, with fever, most likely it is the inflammation of the kidneys (pyelonephritis) and in that case you should contact us as soon as your gynecologist. Almost 50% of untreated infections of the urinary bladder goes into a kidney infection, which is far more difficult to treat, even the fact it can take a chronic course. As signs of inflammation of the bladder are not always accompanied by problems, urine test is performed routinely at each visit to a gynecologist during pregnancy.
A few tips to preserve the health of kidney and bladder:
• Beware of hypothermia, avoid sitting in a cool place, do not let your feet freeze;
• Ensure adequate fluid intake. Coffee and alcohol are not welcome to pregnancy!
• Wear warm, cotton underwear;
• If you wear pants, should not be too narrow;
• Do not go overboard with the effort and stress! Excessive strain and stress are the best way to weaken your immune system.
• when you urinate, empty the bladder completely. The residual parts of urine in the bladder containing the largest number of bacteria and increase the risk of infection.
• intimate area is always deleted from front to back.


Pregnancy week by week / second trimester / 26 week

Your baby begins to open your eyes!

The mother
By pregnancy and weight gain, problems multiply and pregnant women. First of all there are tensions in the lower abdomen and back pain, especially in the back. Occasionally occurring headaches, insomnia and leg cramps. Think about how diet, correct the weight gain and increase the intake of magnesium!
Clinically, magnesium deficiency usually manifests cramps in the calves (early leading symptom), and in cases of severe deficiency can lead to preterm labor. When significant decrease magnesium levels significantly increases the risk of premature delivery or miscarriage. In the fetus, due to lack of magnesium can lead to growth disorders. The recommended dose in the case of oral magnesium substitution of 300 mg / day.
Foods rich in magnesium are:
• whole-grain products, milk, dairy products, potatoes, legumes, cereals, hazelnuts and walnuts.
• Donat Mg.

Your Baby
No matter what color eyes will your baby be later, during intrauterine life, your baby's eyes are blue! In this week your baby opens her eyes, which are now fully developed and have all the layers: sclera, cornea, iris and retina. Retina has all the layers as well as after birth. Now they are formed, and tiny eyelashes and eyebrows, which will continue to grow until birth.
Your baby is still thin, so the baby's skin is still wrinkled and red because they provide a delicate blood vessels in the subcutaneous layer. Disposal of adipose tissue is a process that now stands in the center of intrauterine events, so that your baby at birth to have plump and chubby look.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is about 35 cm long and weighs 700-850 g.

Advice
During pregnancy, the pregnant woman and the two types of herpes viruses - of which herpes simplex virus type I causes herpes on the lips (herpes labialis) and type II herpes in the genital area (genital herpes), far more significant genital herpes infections. It is estimated that during the reproductive period 20 - 40% of women had their first infection with herpes virus. Pregnant women suffer three times more frequently than genital herpes than women outside of pregnancy.
The problem of genital herpes in pregnancy is a problem of its transfer agent to the newborn during birth. If it is a fresh infection which first occurred during pregnancy and the time / date of birth about the risk of transmission of herpes to the newborn is 40 - 60%. In this case, be sure to complete the planned delivery by Caesarean section.
In the case of secondary infections - which is known from before, and relapses during pregnancy, the risk of transmission to the newborn is 10%. This is the reason why pregnant women who have previously had genital herpes prevention over 35 week of pregnancy until delivery, administered antiviral therapy: acyclovir at a dosage of 200 mg / day.
In patients with secondary genital herpes within four hours of rupture of the membranes does not come to the emergence of labor, it is recommended as the primary genital herpes infection to complete delivery by Caesarean section to prevent ascending infection of the newborn. Newborn pregnant women with genital herpes must be separated from other infants because of the possibility of transmission of infection. Breastfeeding is not prohibited, it is necessary to strictly obey the rules of hygiene.
Usually, genital herpes infections do not last longer than two weeks. Please note that this is time enough to transmit the virus to the newborn.
Recommendations:
• abstinence from sexual intercourse for the entire duration of infection
• washing hands thoroughly with soap and water after each toilet visit
• daily showering,
• the deletion always j .... clean towel,
• Changes in the reproductive organs are always kept clean and dry,
• Wear only cotton underwear, especially you should not pinch the groin area.


Pregnancy week by week / second trimester / 27 week

A baby born at 27 week of pregnancy weighs around 1,000 g, requiring intensive care in an incubator - but is capable of fighting for his life in case of premature delivery?

The mother
Since the 27th During the week when you had to reckon with the successful survival of your baby, even in the case of premature birth - it's time to get on board. Of course, it is about preparing children's rooms and the first purchases of items for your baby.
What to buy:
• 50 small disposable diapers (for starters) or 24 cloth diapers
• 6 slinavčića
• 5 T (the binding of the cross or the door closed)
• 4 bodice (underclothes and shorts in one part of the shirt with the bottoms of the feet)
• 4 odijelca with closed legs
• 3 sleeping bag (with zipper or fastener on the bottom)
• 3 children's hooded towels
• 2 shirts
• 2 blankets for wrapping
• a summer or winter hat
• 1 šlapice.

Your Baby
A baby born prematurely is called premature. Although in this week your baby is about 85% chances for successful sailing in life, especially her lungs are still immature. Lung immaturity is indeed implies a complete or nearly complete development of lung alveoli, but this time it indicates a lack of substance called surfactant that allows the proper function of the alveoli. Without surfactant the alveoli are unable to inflate, and your baby can not breathe properly so.
A baby born at this time still can not breathe properly, and be the breathing apparatus. In addition to immature lung function, at this time are still immature and the liver, brain and immune system. For this reason it is premature and subject to various infections. After his premature appearance is no different from babies born at term - only much lighter and smaller.
Experiences of mothers premature infant
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is about 36 cm long and weighs 700-800 g.

Advice
The pregnancy is usually much easier to fall to quit, but outside of pregnancy. Just the idea that smoking can harm the baby probably caused by a sudden aversion to cigarettes. If you are looking for other reasons to quit smoking during pregnancy, here are some that may help:
The women with a strong habit of smoking are more common in early pregnancy bleeding and miscarriage. Very often in these pregnant women appears placental circulation disorders and disturbances in the development of a child - particularly delays in growth (weight), baby, why babies are on average pregnant women who smoke less and very easy. Pregnant women who smoke usually do not gain weight as much as they should, which is considered another reason (apart from lack of oxygen due to smoking) for the lag in growth of the child.Children whose mothers smoked heavily during pregnancy ("Raucherbabys") with double disturbance of breathing at birth. It is also more frequent sudden infant death (SIDS - sudden infant death syndrome).
How to stop smoking during pregnancy:
• Step by step: reducing the number of cigarettes every day or
• rapidly: just now decide to leave the smoking!
It is this second method is the long-term success. Of course this is a difficult step for you - if you smoke. As with other addictions, there may be less or more powerful signs of withdrawal. Here are a smaller or larger doses irritability, restlessness, tingling in hands and feet, the pressure in the stomach area or interfere with sleep. You can tire easily, feel a loss of concentration and will. If you do any of these signs appear - their duration ceases for some 6 - 8 days. You'll notice a slightly increased stimulation of cough due to accumulation of pulmonary secretions. To avoid or mute your stress, focus your attention on a pleasant and enjoyable side activities.
Recommendations for smoking cessation in pregnancy:
• Try to get along and quit coffee. Coffee increases at this time unpleasant signs of giving up smoking.
• Eat more fresh fruits and vegetables, drink plenty of milk.
• Relax in pleasant walks.
• You can occupy your attention to listening to music or reading.
• Organize meetings with dear friends.
• If you have severe problems with the signs of abstinence, do not hesitate to seek psychological help.
• Note: During pregnancy and breastfeeding, you should not take resources that contain nicotine such as nicotine patches or nicotine gum. 

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