Saturday, March 31, 2012

Pregnancy by week - THIRD TRIMESTER (28-40 weeks)

Pregnancy week by week / third trimester / 28 week
This week marks the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy.

The mother
At the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy is still a standard check tests: complete blood count CBC and RBC levels of antibodies in the blood (antiglobulin or Coombs test). That during pregnancy blood volume increases by about 30%, and the volume of blood elements by about 25% - a natural treasure dilution anemia (anemia due to blood dilution). If the iron levels in the normal range, in spite of anemia in the blood picture is not necessary to take additional iron preparations. Conversely, very often due to the great need for pregnant women and children for iron deficiency anemia is iron, when iron is certainly recommended substitute.Particularly rich in iron are legumes, eggs, povrtnice green leaves and red meat.
If your blood type is Rh negative, this week will do another test on red cell antibodies. This test shows that you have in your blood developed antibodies that could endanger your baby.

Your Baby
In 28th week of pregnancy your baby begins to produce surfactant - a substance that coats the inner surface of lung alveoli and thereby reduces their surface tension. In this way, surfactant enables the expansion and spread of lung alveoli - breathing, which is a prerequisite for independent living. The process of maturation of the baby's body: advancing the growth and maturation of the functions of certain organs. Hair becomes longer.Continued storage of fat under the skin
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is about 37 cm long and weighs 800-1000 g.

Apart from the different blood groups such as A, B and O red blood cells (erythrocytes) carry on their membranes and other antigens (substances that can trigger an immune reaction and the formation of antibodies against these substances). The most important of tvih substances in pregnancy is Rhesus-factor, which was first detected in the blood of Rhesus monkeys and it carries his name. The addition of Rhesus-positive red cells in Rhesus-negative blood results in the formation of antibodies that destroy red blood cells which carry on their surface-Rhesus factor (Rh incompatibilities). Hence, no pregnant women with Rhes-negative blood can not get a Rhesus-positive blood.
If a Rhesus-negative pregnant women carrying Rhesus-positive baby, very rarely during pregnancy, at birth but often the transition between children's Rhesus-positive red cells in maternal blood. Her immune system reacts to the child's erythrocytes and Rhesus-factor antibodies. These antibodies are due during the next pregnancy in baby's bloodstream and destroy its red blood cells causing anemia appearances babies.
In such cases, depending on the severity of the clinical picture can be taken intrauterine blood transfusion babies.
This problem is almost the rule, not seen in the first pregnancy, because pregnancy and childbirth appeared before the creation of antibodies.
In order to prevent the occurrence of antibodies, Rhesus-negative mothers today regularly receive directly after birth injection safety: Anti-D immunoglobulin, which prevents the formation of antibodies against Rhesus-positive erythrocytes. Such protection applies to injections for treatment in pregnancy (amniocentesis) or abundant bleeding during pregnancy, of course, only the Rhesus-negative pregnant women.

Pregnancy week by week / third trimester / 29 week

If your pregnancy has been flowing regularly, it's time to start thinking about trudničkoj gymnastics.

The mother
At this time, not the rare watery fluid from the chest: the impact of high and still rising levels of the hormone prolactin, and placental hormones that prepare the breast for milk secretion, created the first milk or colostrum.The right milk will naturally occur until several days after birth.

Your baby will be all the more frequent and announce your arrival. Begin to edit children's room gradually during pregnancy and do not leave anything for the last week because you will then be easy to overwork. For children's room you will need:
• baby changing table, the height of your waist, preferably with drawers in which to hold diapers, handkerchiefs to wipe and wash, and more. It is convenient to set a couple of shelves above the desk on which is everything you could possibly need at your fingertips.
• wardrobe with drawers or cupboard for clothes, shelves or later a big box of toys and books later.
• Small lamp or adjustable main light and a comfortable chair or a corner of nighttime breastfeeding
• While your baby will not reach the outlet of the radiator in its early days, still make sure their safety and put safety plugs in inserts. Baby cot Do not place the heat source.
Experiences of mothers premature infant

Your Baby
Advances primarily storage of fat, growth of internal organs and the maturation of their functions. The body gradually takes on the final proportions. The baby opens and closes his eyes, when her eyes are open to moving them around as if something looks.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is about 38 cm long and weighing about 1000-1250 g.

There is no reason to worry or panic if you accidentally happen to you - the time when you did not know that you are pregnant, drink a glass of wine, champagne or beer. No evidence of harmful effects of such a random sampling alokohola early child development. Things are quite different if the alcohol does not give up during the entire duration of pregnancy. Based on expert opinion, alcohol is a major risk factor in the development of prenatal damage to the child.
Alcohol passes without incurring any difficulties the placental barrier and enters the child's bloodstream. Since the child is not mature enzymes that break down alcohol in the liver - and very small amounts of alcohol remains in the bloodstream of the child two to three times longer than in the mother's bloodstream. While pregnant women may feel the effects of alcohol quite slowly, at the same time her child is exposed to grave 'drunkenness'.Safe limit of doctors you can recommend - for pregnant women because the rule is "zero parts per thousand," and to the entire course of pregnancy.
Alcohol affects different mechanisms of embryonic development. On the one hand it is a toxin that causes cell growth problems, on the other hand give rise to certain anomalies in the development. As his actions and neurotoksičkog character, is practically always affected the central nervous system. Within the alcoholic damage to distinguish the full picture of alcohol embriopatije with physical, mental and spiritual signs of the disease from milder forms of the so-called. effects of alcohol.
With alcohol embriopatijom have to count on regular and uncontrolled consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Children with alcoholic embriopatijom remain low growth, weight and head band are below the curve for age. They appear as strong outbursts in the development of motor function, mental damage as well as the typical appearance of a rule with a narrow eye slits, the changes on the lips as well as anomalies in the face and brain. There are frequent abnormalities in the development of the heart, bones, kidneys and eyes. These changes may be typical, run of the disease, occur in several stages.
Somewhat less obvious damage due to alcohol abuse are designated as alcohol effects. Mainly manifested in the central nervous system, and although many times more common than alcohol embriopatije - difficult to diagnose. On the effects of alcohol to be reckoned with, but regular consumption of moderate amounts or occasional intake of excessive amounts of alcohol during pregnancy. In the affected children are especially weakened brain function. The school children are to experience difficulties with reading, spelling and numeracy difficulties in concentration and attention, logical and abstract thinking. Behavior is often hyperactive and hiperagresivno.

Pregnancy week by week / third trimester / 30 week

Occasionally occurring contractions - contractions in pregnancy.

The mother
At first test contraction, but is now regularly occur, even when they do not feel pregnant. Although it is a completely natural reaction to her uterine stretch, these contractions have a special name Braxton Hicks's contractions. These are irregular, painless contractions rehearsing - preparation for childbirth contractions.With advancing pregnancy will become severe in intensity. Can be felt as a contraction of the uterus if the hand lay on her stomach.
At this time there is a correction of lumbar lordosis, lumbar spine curvature due to the weight of the abdomen, as well as softening the connective ligaments, causing pain are common in the lumbar back. For this reason, consult the proper posture when standing and sitting.

Your Baby
Your baby probably feel Braxton Hicks contractions, the question is what she sees? Since the baby is floating in amniotic fluid and wrapped the fruits of this, most likely to feel these contractions as more or less strong massage. In any case, these contractions can hurt the baby.
Advances the maturation of the lungs, a baby is now running and rhythmic movements of the chest imitating breathing. Sometimes, if swallowing amniotic fluid enters the stomach instead of in the wrong place, the baby - and you can feel her hiccups. At this time your baby has its phases: phase activities, as well as the resting phase, which are individually wrapped in a daily rhythm of your baby. And as it usually happens: a baby is liveliest when you relax during the day of rest, or when you go to sleep.
The baby is all bucmastija, and disposal of fat tissue will stabilize the function of maintaining body temperature.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is about 39 cm long and weighs 1100-1400 g.

Pregnancy is not the time for drug abuse. Generally speaking, most problems occur with a narrowing of blood vessels, placenta, and reduced placental circulation and supply oxygen and nutrients a child. A common phenomenon is the growth retardation of the child that results in very low birth weight babies.
Individually speaking taking cocaine during pregnancy can lead to various abnormalities of the urogenital tract babies, why cocaine is now classified as teratogenic substances.
Marijuana and its active ingredient THC passes the placental barrier and enters the bloodstream babies. It has been scientifically confirmed effect on the frequency of the baby's heartbeat in terms of decreasing the number of Spell. Teratogenic effects and increased perinatal mortality were not confirmed by the consumption of marijuana. Some papers are especially pronounced effect of marijuana in terms of chromosome breaks, which are enjoying this herb is not recommended for the entire duration of pregnancy.
LSD has no effect embriotoksičko. In individual cases are also described chromosome breaks, as well as abnormalities in the baby's skeleton is therefore not recommended for consumption during pregnancy.
Heroin - dependent pregnant women have during pregnancy and after delivery to count a number of possible complications. In most pregnant women gain weight is inappropriate, and 50% develop maternity gestosis.Approximately one in four heroin-addicted pregnant women are infected with hepatitis, a significant problem in pregnancy and is alloimmunization (RBC antibodies in the creation of Rh negative pregnant women in the use of shared needles). In analyzing the course of labor is particularly striking completed a number of operational delivery. Nearly all pregnant women during labor showed signs of withdrawal crisis: restlessness, rapid pulse, high-pressure oscillations. About 14% of infants at birth weighs less than 2,500 g, and 25% of children in the family before the 38th weeks of pregnancy.
Uncontrolled withdrawal from heroin during pregnancy results in an increased number of spontaneous abortions in the third trimester of premature labor and sudden intrauterine death of a child. Therefore, along with regular antenatal care necessary substitution therapies in pregnancy: polamidon L-(L-isomer) or methadone (racemate) to prevent physical and mental retardation of the child.
In order to maintain your health and the health of your child, be sure to talk with your health care provider about possible complications, and consult your nearest psychiatrist. If nothing else, then at least to prevent withdrawal signs of crisis in your baby and join the program for giving more during pregnancy. If the treatment program and successfully passed a pregnant woman at least a month before delivery not taking anything, absent signs of neonatal withdrawal of the crisis.

Pregnancy week by week / third trimester / 31 week

In the 31st week of pregnancy completes the process of maturing your baby's lungs.

The mother
Due to the extensive changes that have occurred so far in your body, it is now seen any problems so far have not felt: shortness of breath, choking sensation and shortness of breath on exertion. Cause of these problems on the one hand to gain weight, on the other hand the increase of the uterus and your baby to exercise some pressure on your internal organs. The recommended weight gain in the 31st week of pregnancy is 7.5 - 8.5 kg. In this weight gain include weight of the fetus, placenta and amniotic fluid, increased breast and uterus, increased blood volume and actual weight gain (storage of fat, protein and water in your tissues). The uterus itself, and its weight is during pregnancy increases about 500 times!
Please note that excessive weight gain has a detrimental effect on a number of ways. Excessive weight gain is to be expected:
• too large baby (> 4000 g) due to excessive supply building blocks and baby goods
• too small babies (<2500 g) due to disturbances in the flow of blood through the placenta.
Another major problem is the accumulation of fat in the abdomen during labor contractions and electrical activity acts as an insulator. It is not difficult to assume that the accumulated fat in the abdomen, thus hindering formation of labor, contractions are irregular and do not have sufficient strength and duration of delivery is extended. On the other hand if it is to this the big baby, it is clear that the excessive weight gain and eventually suffer birth are exhausted and pregnant women and babies.
You still have time to think about your diet!

Your Baby
The development of specialized epithelial cells lining the alveoli and produce surfactant, completes the process of maturation of lung function, which greatly improves the chances of survival if your baby's premature birth.
The function of the placenta at this time is absolutely ripe and perfect. Now that your blood is separated from the baby's blood is a thin membrane which is only 5 mm and consists of three layers of cells: with your hand to the single-layer epithelium: endothelium of your blood vessels, then a common basement membrane is the baby's epithelium: the endothelium of blood vessels placenta. This thin membrane is called placental (utero-placental, materno-fetal) barriers. Nutrients and oxygen from the mother's side, and the waste products and carbon dioxide with the baby pass through the placental barrier by simply using chemical processes such as diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis and active transport. At this time, the speed of exchange of substances between your and the baby's blood is 10 ml / second. In spite of such a intimate contact and your baby's blood throughout pregnancy with preserved placental barrier will not mix!
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is about 40 cm long and weighs about 1400-1600 g.

During pregnancy, the entrance to the womb - the cervix (the uterine mouth) or mucous plug cervix closed.Sometimes the uterine mouth begins to shorten and expand (open) before the pregnancy is completed, called weakness or insufficiency of the cervix or uterine mouth. Premature opening of the mouth of the uterine membranes results in lowering the fertile channel maternity, their infection and rupture, which causes depending on the amount of pregnancy miscarriage or premature birth. During regular gynecological examinations Your doctor will need in case of imminent failure of the cervix, or its progression to recommend a small operation called a cerclage. Cerclage is a procedure that must be performed in hospital settings, and in short-term intravenous anesthesia are set firm seam of the cervix, thus preventing its further spread, or the opening and preterm birth.
For premature shortening of the cervix and uterine opening of the mouth during pregnancy can affect:
• damage to the uterine mouth large clefts at first birth;
• surgery on the cervix (cone biopsy);
• weakness of tissue damage due to fine muscle and collagen fibers of the cervix prior interventions in terms of expansion;
• congenital weakness of the cervix.
A few tips in case of an early opening: shortening and expansion of uterine mouth:
• bed rest and a quart of heavy physical labor;
• If you are employed, it is necessary to leave open, and arrange for assistance at regular chores;
• Remember the end of pregnancy to travel or tours;
• Usually in these circumstances and prohibits prenatal exercise, about how the individual should consult with your health care provider;
• abstain from sex: Sexual intercourse primarily prostaglandins from the semen can trigger the formation of labor and preterm birth time.

Pregnancy week by week / third trimester / 32 week

In 32nd week of pregnancy your baby's lungs are fully mature and capable of breathing function.

The mother
No later than at age 32 week is planned to make a third, usually the last ultrasound. In this review we look at the position of the child, the position and appearance of the placenta, and amniotic fluid volume. If there are irregularities, ultrasound will be repeated in a shorter period of time. In addition to the position of the baby and placenta, usually performed standard measurements and estimates of growth of the child.
Surely you have noticed in your book abbreviations type ultrasonic BPD, FRO, HC, THQ, AC, FL. These abbreviations are denoted by the corresponding diameter of the baby's head, abdomen and thigh bones, which are compared with the given curves and tables. If there are discrepancies in the size of the child, the search is usually supplemented by measurements of blood flow through arteries that deliver blood to the uterus and the umbilical artery. Search called Doppler sonography and popular color-Doppler.
On the 32nd weeks you will see once again the blood center to conduct a second test antiglobulinskog - tests were used to detect any antibodies in your blood that could harm the baby.

Your Baby
Finally in the 32nd week quite mature and lung function. Pulmonary alveoli are now coated with a substance called surfactant, and that reducing their surface tension allows the expansion of the alveoli in the first breaths after birth. With the maturation of lung function is actually your baby may be born, without any fear. The only problem would be its low birth weight in this time! The baby would be quite thin and wrinkled skin, and will be right there in the coming weeks to settle zaobljujući fat baby's body.
Quite reliably during late pregnancy develops baby's hearing. In the stomach the baby is well protected from external sounds, but also addressed the noise from knocking your heart, bowel and continuous circulation of blood through blood vessels. At this time the baby hears your voice is stronger than the external ambient noise.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is about 41 cm long and weighs about 1600-1800 g.

During pregnancy, greatly changes the metabolism of carbohydrates, primarily due to the formation and excretion of large amounts of existing (estradiol, estriol) as well as emerging hormones (hCG, HPL) placenta. In order to maintain normal blood sugar levels even function, the pancreas must produce insulin during pregnancy in large quantities, because it is a common feature of their hormone insulin antagonistic action! If insufficient levels of insulin, increases blood sugar and talk about diabetes mellitus (diabetes) in the resulting pregnancy - gestational diabetes.
The meaning of impaired control of blood sugar levels during pregnancy are several times - the growth of the child is often faster, more frequent anomalies of development, the greater the number of premature births, complications are more common in pregnancy and childbirth. Jaundice is more common, and infant mortality.Mothers are more prone to infections, pregnancy is often completed by cesarean section.
Risk factors for gestational diabetes:
• diabetes in the family
• too much amniotic fluid
• previous miscarriages and failed pregnancy
• excessive weight gain
• frequent yeast infections
• abnormalities and death of a child
• a positive urine sugar
• child's birth weight> 4000 g.
The diagnosis of diabetes arising in pregnancy raises the sugar using an exercise test - OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) determines the value of fasting blood sugar, and 120 minutes after the sugar load - takes a sugary drink (75 g of sugar dissolved in water 3 dl) . Optimal search is done between 20 - 24 weeks of pregnancy, and if risk factors are present before. Diagnosis of gestational diabetes is diagnosed if the glucose value at 120 minutes more than 7.8 mmol / l.
Women with gestational diabetes should be more frequent monitoring is recommended diabetic diet of 1800-2200 calories, depending on the degree of activity of the mother. If the glucose level does not work in this way brought under control, must be given insulin. Usually a single dose (combined long-short-+ insulin) is sufficient.Required dose of insulin is determined and controlled by repeating the profile of sugar: sugar levels are determined every 3 hours for 24 hours (hospital observation required). These pregnant women are hospitalized usually earlier and not later than 2 weeks before the expected date for intensive supervision of the child and the decision of the completion of pregnancy.

Pregnancy week by week / third trimester / 33 week

If you still want to start a course for pregnant women, 33 week is the time to do so.

The mother
In 33rd week of pregnancy the cervix is ​​still closed and the appropriate length. These terms include the length of the cervix (the cervix) of about 2 cm, and in your trudničkoj booklet you can find articles written and 2. or maybe 100%. In one case used herein cm, length of the article in the second finger, and the third the relative ratio of the length of the cervix compared to the beginning of pregnancy. Other important criteria in assessing the state of the position of the cervix (the cervix at the rear, center, front), consistency (the cervix hard, soft) and openness (the cervix is ​​closed, uloživ the fingertip, passable for a finger). All these qualities are used to assess the maturation of the cervix which normally begins to occur in late pregnancy.
Early maturation of the cervix certainly points to premature labor and requires more frequent inspection, and very often hospitalization. Very early premature ripening of the cervix - cervical patency for at least one finger in the period to 28 weeks of pregnancy is treated with a small surgical procedure: placing a circular cavity and the cervix, which is marked with cerclage.
At this time the reduction in libido may occur, do not worry if this happens to you.
Sometimes you can have a clear dreams, and perhaps you will urinate more often.

Your Baby
Your baby is now placed in a position to give birth, you'll probably find out on your next inspection. Maternity position of the baby implies several things:
• The ratio of the longitudinal axis of the child to the longitudinal axis of the uterus, which indicates the position - situs. Thus, we distinguish between the longitudinal, transverse and oblique position;
• the relationship of the child back to the uterine wall, which means the accommodation - positio. Thus, the back can be left front, left rear, right front, etc..;
• the relationship of individual parts of each child, which is marked with grip - habit. This head can be bent toward the front, stretched and bent the way back, arms bent or stretched, etc..;
• The relationship between the child prednjačećeg of maternity channel, which is marked with furniture - praesentatio. Thus, for example. head when the leader, taking part can be a vertex, and the forehead or face, and the abdomen may lead to the abdomen, legs, knees, etc..
Latest statistics show that in 100 births, on average, 99 of the longitudinal position and a transverse position.Longitudinal position of 99, the child in 94 times the lead head, and 5 times the water abdomen. Head of 94 births, 92 births in the leading part of the scalp, two times in some other parts of the head (forehead, face).
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is about 42 cm long, and weighs 1800-2000 g.

Premature birth is a term which signifies birth between 24 and 37 weeks of pregnancy. Early preterm birth is a birth between 24 - 34 weeks, while the term late preterm birth marks birth between 34 - 37 weeks of pregnancy.In the ambiguous term birth, preterm birth marks birth of a child who weighs less than 2,500 g. The reasons for occurrence of premature births are usually multiple, and often intertwined.
Risk factors for preterm labor:
• Unhealthy lifestyle habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol and coffee.
• poorer socio-economic conditions of life;
• Strong physical burden of pregnancy;
• psychological stress;
• unconscious meanings of antenatal care and lack of control during pregnancy;
• infection in the genital or urogenital area.
Among these factors the most important reason for the occurrence of preterm birth remains upward (ascending) infection of the urogenital tract. In doing so, the most common causes of infection chlamydia, fungi, Trichomonas and herpes virus, which in the premature births and 2,000 g make up 3/4 causes of premature birth.
Signs of premature labor:
• sudden pain in her lower abdomen, the type of convulsive contractions that occur at regular intervals;
• Constant pain in the lumbar;
• occurrence of lymph or dark brown discharge from the vagina;
• odilazak amniotic fluid.
In case of any of these signs are required to consult with your gynecologist, in his absence or inability to contact, be sure to contact your nearest clinic.

Pregnancy week by week / third trimester / 34 week

Delivery between 34 - 37 week is designated by the term late preterm birth. On the 34th week of pregnancy your maternity leave begins.

The mother
If you have not been on sick leave due to complications in pregnancy and if you have done so far, it's time for maternity leave. Maternity leave is your legal right, and covers forty-five days before term, and six months after the birth of the baby. If you prefer, you can use maternity leave up to a year at the expense of the fund, up to a three year old child's unpaid leave. For more information, contact the relevant service.

Your Baby
Although the world is limited to your baby inside the womb, it will behave just like any newborn, except that of course will not cry. Surely you recognize that your baby has its own rhythm of wakefulness and sleep, which is almost always different from what exactly you are doing.
When awake, the baby will imitate the rhythmic movements of breathing, swallowing amniotic fluid, and can hiccup. To initiate, hear, feel, and you may discern the outlines blurred, but primarily the development of brain cells and connections between them allowed her to learn.
The baby will sleep a lot, her eyes are at the same time very moving, and therefore we assume that it may have vivid dreams.

Length and weight babies:
Your baby is about 43 cm long and weighs 2000-2250 g.

It is good for a while before giving birth to pack things you'll need in the hospital - if contractions occur sooner than they expect, with all the surprise is usually not remember all the things you'll need during your stay.
Not a bad check at the hospital whether to use or own hospital gowns, and to do other than the clothes you wear your baby on the way out of the hospital need to take something else needed for the baby.
While in hospital, you will need:
• Two gowns that open in front;
• a bathrobe and slippers;
• 1 towel for showering;
• nursing bra, breast pads;
• sanitary towels;
• Several comfortable cotton underwear;
• all the necessities for personal hygiene;
• clean clothes to leave the hospital, and
• clothing for children in which to take it home.
Clothes to leave the hospital (and your baby) and you can trust your spouse / partner, packed in a separate bag that will bring you on leaving the hospital.
Useful, though not necessarily the things you will need to have warm socks, phone cards and of course the book, something to read and evtl. camera or video camera ready to shoot.

Pregnancy week by week / third trimester / 35th week

In case of premature birth your baby would weigh about 2550 g, and would be fully ripe for extrauterine life

The mother
Weight gain and growth of the uterus, your bodies are pushed to the habitual, which is natural and you should not worry. At this time, can create difficulties keeping or retention of fluid, whose consequences could be varicose veins, hemorrhoids occurrence, swollen ankles and fingers. Not wear tight clothing, and if you have never Take off the rings with the hand if it becomes too tight.
The needs of the fruit for vitamins and minerals are especially great this time, pay attention to diet and vitamin supplements in the diet.

Your Baby
As we approach the time of birth, most babies head is turned towards the exit channel of maternity. Late 28thweeks at about 30% of the baby is facing the abdomen, and this number is reduced to giving birth, so that only 5% of babies remain turned on the abdomen, thus giving birth. If your baby is facing the abdomen is present enough amniotic fluid, placenta occupies a convenient location - this time for trying to turn the baby outside the head.
External cephalic version consists of gentle movements that are performed by passing and moving your hand across the abdomen, where the baby is pushed out of occupied and turned into the desired position. External cephalic version is required because of possible complications with intensive surveillance done in hospital settings.
Your baby is progressing intensively, especially strongly increases its weight, this time getting around 200 - 250 g / week! First of all, the subcutaneous adipose tissue disposed so that the baby undergoes a final look chubby.In this week fingernails reach the fingertips, and some babies may be longer, and after childbirth can find even a scratch on the site dating from intrauterine life.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is about 44 cm long and weighs 2300-2550 g.

Start a birth is characterized by the following two options:
• rupture of membranes
• The beginning of sorrows.
When you feel the rupture of the membranes and / or see a clear or light opaque milky or colorless liquid with no odor nikakovog. Another thing is that this primjećujte you can not keep fluids as urine. In the case of rupture of the membranes should occur as soon as possible in the maternity ward. Indicates rupture of the membranes have ruptured membranes of fertile and high risk of infection if labor does not start very soon. Another danger is the cord clamp for rapid drainage of amniotic fluid. In this case, therefore, without delay and without waiting for labor go to hospital.
Quite a different situation for the occurrence of contractions. The first uterine contractions are usually felt as a gentle and painless tightening in the lower abdomen. These first contractions you feel at times, but the 35th - 36weeks, and is denoted as travail upon landing. Contractions lowering down and secure the baby's head in the bony pelvis entrance. Over time, the contraction / contractions become stronger and more frequent. Start confinement phenomenon is characterized by rhythmic contractions in the beginning of every half hour, then more often: every 15 - 20 minutes. The usual recommendation is to report to the nursery when contractions last for at least half to one hour, and their rhythm is 1-2 truda/15 - 20 minutes. When you head for the nursery of course, still depends on the distance from the hospital.
When you contact the nursery:
• rupture of membranes;
• occurrence of lymph / bleeding with contractions;
• appearance of rhythmic contractions: 1-2 truda/15 - 20 minutes;
• occurrence of any change in your baby's movement: to report a very strong movement or sudden calm your baby's activities.

Pregnancy week by week / third trimester / 36 week

If you have not done so far, 36 week is the time to pack your things and your baby to the hospital.

The mother
In 36th week of pregnancy, the upper half of the uterus (fundus) reaches its highest point. It reaches to the sternum, which is why you will probably feel the effects of the enlarged uterus pressing on surrounding organs.Primarily to the pressure on the ribs, lungs and stomach, which may appear uncomfortable pain under the ribs, shortness of breath and / or heartburn. The booklet trudničkoj your doctor is the position of the uterus probably marked with X = F where F denotes holdings, and X processus xyphoides - sternum.
At this time control is performed every 2 weeks.

One of the current not-so-important hormones of pregnancy is their effect on the roots. During pregnancy there namely, the synchronization of the cuticle of the hair - balancing stage of development of hair follicles. The fact that most of the hair during pregnancy increases intensely - which will result in increased hair loss after childbirth. Normally our hair grows at different rates, the hair at the same time undergoing various stages of development (anagen, telogen, Catagen) and fall out at different times.

Your Baby
Your baby is showing the first signs of increased delay, fat, baby face is completed, the smooth, plump, and cheeks are already fully booked. Thick cheeks come at least partly due to the development of the jaw muscles during thumb sucking. Baby's head is completely formed, and the bone sutures are not completely hard and fully coalesced, and the bone during birth can something near and even overlap in order to accommodate the size of the head maternity channel.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is about 46 cm long, and weighs 2500-2750 g.

How labor begins? Our present findings indicate that the baby itself by creating specific substances causing your birth. The exact mechanisms are not fully known.
Precede the onset of labor law are few, specific changes such as:
• lowering the abdomen;
• maturation of the uterine mouth;
• slowing the progression of fetal
• prednjačećeg lowering of the child in maternity channel.
All these changes are of more importance as the accompanying changes, rather than changes caused by the start of labor. In anticipation of the start of labor is quite normal to try to behave:
• relax evtl. and relaxation exercises, and your attention okupirajte gentle walks or meetings with friends,
• at this time is still very recommended for swimming. The water temperature should be neither too hot nor too cold;
• Organize your diet by eating more times a day small meals and easily digestible foods;
• the appearance of contraction (predtrudovi) would not be eating more solid food, to the case of anesthesia possible risks to a minimum;
• the first contractions still occur in a fairly long intervals. Take advantage of these spaces, and get some sleep.You are never sure when to start real contractions.

Pregnancy week by week / third trimester / 37th week

In 37th week of pregnancy there is a belly landing.

The mother
If this is your first pregnancy - this week you will feel relief in terms of easing the pressure on the ribs, lungs, stomach and other internal organs. Far easier for you to breathe and eat. This relief appearances as a result of lowering the head of the child in a small bowl. As a result of lowering the head into a small bowl, performance increased pressure on the bladder, which appears increased urge to urinate and frequent urination. You may also feel pressure or pain in the groin or legs.
As your baby continues to grow, this relief will be short-lived. Late 40th week baby feet again reaches your breastbone.
If you allow your pregnancy, make a test run to the hospital and visit the Department of pregnancy and delivery room, if it is in a hospital practice.

Your Baby
On the 37th week of pregnancy your baby becomes clinically mature and ready for delivery. With this week also ended the period of possible preterm labor.
In the following days the baby will continue to gain weight, with this gain in particular to the storage of fat. At this time the baby delayed an average of 14 g fat / day. Essential fatty acids are included in the composition of myelin, a specialized layer of the brain and spinal nerves, which begins the final process of maturation of the nervous system. The myelination process will continue even after the baby is born.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is about 47 cm long, and weighs 2750-2950 g.

Although in our maternity unit is still the traditional classic method of delivery (porodničkom lying on the bed), for a birth at home - unlike some other countries - there are no conditions at all, mention a few more interesting features.
Instead of lying bedridden, active labor pushing lets you take different positions: for example, on your knees or squat. Such positions may facilitate the flow of labor and birth pain, and allow your partner and active participation.
"Vierfüßlerstand": birth in knee-elbow position that is still carried on porodničkom bed. Favored by many mothers, especially when the top of the bed slightly pridigne. In this position of mothers in the state increase the labor force still active and the weight of his body.
"Geburtshocker" - delivery is done in a sitting position at a special low stool without backrest, which is the front oval sink - exactly for the smooth passage of children's heads and bodies. In doing so, the mothers usually relies on a partner who can sit behind her in a completely normal chair. In an awkward position when this position are the only midwife and gynecologist, who rarely have to squat or lie on the floor that is covered with sheets of this opportunity.

"Geburtsrad" - maternity wheel (pictured), also called "Roma - Geburtsrad" the girl that Roma in 1991. The first born in this position. The wheel allows almost upright upper body childbirth, which is used to reinforce the labor force. The wheel is very mobile in all directions and provides a set of positions for sitting and rocking back and forth and sideways, rotate and tilt the pelvis backward. According to the maternity ward, in which the wheel of maternity, labor flows quickly and painlessly.
"Wassergeburt" - birth in water, which takes place in a shallow pool. Proponents say this type of delivery that alleviates the pain of birth, and post-operative bleeding, and report fewer operative deliveries completed.According to reports in which the clinic for birth in water, the risk of infection is increased, what is sure to increase the organization's technical staff.

Pregnancy week by week / third trimester / 38 week

Of 38 week you are "in the term." Under the broader notion of "term" means the period between two weeks before and two weeks after the calculated date of confinement.

The mother
Of 38 weeks of pregnancy, your control will be in weekly intervals. Very often the current search is performed and antenatal kardiotokogram: Kucaj record your baby's heart.
Last week of your pregnancy carry the suspense and anticipation of giving birth two basic things: increased weight gain, which amounts to 500 g / week in most related to increased fluid retention. For the same reason it is not uncommon edema - the island. Another important phenomenon in this time of the occurrence of another type of labor. After lowering labor occur predtrudovi and false contractions. Contractions of the right to vary their pace and intensity - predtrudovi and false contractions are usually less intense and after a while if you keep still, completely disappear.

Your Baby
Your baby is perfectly ready for delivery! The baby is already quite chubby. Most of lanugo hair is gone and only the folds whitish deposits are retained vernix. Hair covers the head, eyelashes and eyebrows are fully developed. Handles are usually crossed on his chest and knees drawn to chest. Fingernails reach the tips of the fingers. Sexual organs are in place - the testicles in boys were descended from the abdomen into the scrotum.
In recent weeks the baby's intestines are accumulating digestive material, greenish-black color, called mekonium. Mekonium consists of skin cells and lanugo hairs that have fallen in the amniotic fluid, and the baby has swallowed them, skinned cells from the intestinal epithelium, degraded blood cells and other substances.After delivery, will be the first mekonium secretions of your baby. Sometimes mekonium is discharged even before birth and the baby is born covered with the greenish layer.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is about 48 cm long, and weighs 3000-3100 g.

What may surprise you the most in the delivery room is certainly CTG!
CTG is an abbreviation for kardiotokogram (record) and cardiotocograph (coffee), you may soon see the birth of your gynecologist.
It is a device that electronically records the baby's heart beating, and along with that contraction of the uterus.Placed around your abdomen, two broad bands, each of which holds one sensor (ultrasonic type) connected to the device from which you can hear the baby's heart beating as seen on the tape recording. Here is an external CTG-in.
If the record is deficient, the labor usually runs in its last phase of monitoring your baby's heart Kucaj exclusively porodničkom headset.
If you present any problems or signs of suffering children, birth to supervise the baby is born with internal CTG.It is a small elektrodici which opened through the vagina and the uterine mouth attached to the baby's skin head.If it is not already broke, when the newt is artificially punctured. After the birth of a baby can have a small scratch on the spot where she was pričvšćena electrode, which is rapidly recovering.
Login child ...

Pregnancy week by week / third trimester / 39 week

If you have not done so far, at least in the 39th Week arrange help at home during and after hospitalization.

The mother
In these last days before the birth try to stay calm. Take advantage of Braxton-Hicks contractions, labor or lowering predtrudove to practice relaxation and deep breathing during the effort. Try to let go all thoughts related to childbirth, it is unlikely that labor will run exactly as you imagined it! Be prepared that will make your offspring may be unusually long or painful, or it may be completed by cesarean section.
If it's your second or any of the next pregnancy, consider the case of sterilization in the completion of your emergency caesarean delivery. Sterilization means in this context of permanent tubal ligation, then break their continuity. It would be good in such a case to share your thoughts with a doctor who will perform a Cesarean section. Especially recommended for the sterilization of women who already have children and the sick are more difficult (diabetes mellitus, heart disease, kidney and liver). Do not forget that the sterilization procedure with lasting effect.

Your Baby
First contact with your baby will probably be a surprise! Most likely you will not be her first appearance so very like it! The baby may be bluish, purple or svijetložućkasta, often covered with various substances such as vernix, lanugo-hair remains, your blood or mekonium - baby's first bowel movement. High levels of sex hormones leave your mark on the baby's genitals and breasts that are swollen. Often in the first days of life, babies appear and knows very meager milk discharge from the baby's chest.
If the labor is long lasting, known to be elongated head, a swollen face. Do not frighten your baby with his reaction! It will be much better and look better after the first bath.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is about 49 cm long, and weighs 3000-3250 g.

Around 15% of all births are now completed by cesarean section. It is a surgical procedure, where a general or spinal anesthesia, a small transverse incision in the lower abdomen (just below the "bikini line") opens the abdominal cavity and then the uterus and membranes and extracted prolific child. While the pediatrician examines the child and placement, a gynecologist izljušti placenta, and then sew the wound in reverse order: first the uterus, abdominal wall and then to all the anatomical layers that follow. The whole process takes about twenty minutes to half an hour: the baby is usually taken out for 4 - 7 minutes after the procedure, and the remaining time is spent on sewing.
Cesarean section is a serious operation for a full recovery will take several weeks. He also extended the hospital stay, which usually takes 7 - 10 days. After surgery you will feel even more problems for a while when coughing or laughing, and you can have problems when sitting or standing. The most significant complications of surgery are certainly infections, blood loss problem in the procedure, the problem of wound healing, and increased intra-and postoperative risk of thrombosis.
Indications for cesarean section are twofold character:
• by the mother: severe bleeding (the most common causes of heavy bleeding are placenta previa, premature odlupljivanje normally seated placenta, uterine rupture), mismatch / discrepancy in the size of the child or the size and shape of the pelvis, maternal illness (severe gestosis, heart disease, diabetes, acute infections of genital herpes) and of prolonged labor and
• by a child: an abnormal position of the child, multiple births, preterm birth when the child's expected weight <1.500g, prolonged labor, abnormal uterine CTG in the closed mouth, bradycardia, or acute acidosis at birth, umbilical cord falling and bleeding in the wrong cord insertion (insertio velamentosa).
Cesarean section can be performed as a primary and a secondary caesarean section. In the primary cesarean delivery, cesarean section is planned in advance and carried out "cold", before the onset of labor. Secondary Cesarean section is usually performed after you have started labor, and complications occurred during delivery.
A few tips after cesarean section:
• when walking press the dividing your hand, that way you will reduce the direct pressure to the wound;
• if you have pain when getting up from a normal bed, try to turn on its side, and move all the way to the edge of the bed. Rely on the elbow and try to get out of that position;
• during breastfeeding ask for help, Set up a pillow and lean on it, then just get your baby.

Pregnancy week by week / third trimester / 40 week

Finally came the big event! In 40th week of pregnancy, birth to ca 70% of pregnant women, although only 3% of pregnant women to calculate the term.

The mother
After all these months of waiting will finally be born and your baby. Labor flows into 4 phases:
• Phase I: the phase of opening of the cervix
• Phase II: Birth of the Child
• Phase III: delivery of placenta
• Phase IV: the phase of intensive supervision after birth.
Phase of opening of the cervix generally lasts the longest. From the first contractions to birth a child on average passes in primiparae (primipara - a woman who gives birth to the first time) 12 - 16 hours in multiparas (Multipara - another woman who gives birth to or more times) 8 - 12 hours. In this phase, contractions are getting in the gear - from weak contractions that occur every half hour at the start of this stage, to the strong, strong contractions coming every 2 - 3 minute mark that the rapid arrival of the child to the world.
When the head falls completely out of the pelvis, and uterine contractions open the mouth fully, there is the urge to push, strong and completely involuntary downward pressure that the baby's head is more and more push on the outside. Pay particular attention to your breathing at this time and listen to the instructions of the midwife!After the birth of the head just a few minutes will give birth to babies and the whole body.
After the birth of the child performing a short break in which you are probably excited the first meeting with your baby. At this time the midwife cuts pukovinu and placement of the navel wound babies. The uterus is slightly contraction resulting in separation of the placenta. The placenta is then about 10 - 15 minutes after the birth of a child or family spontaneously gentle pulling on the umbilical cord by a midwife.
After the birth, gynecologist examines maternity channel and disposed of eventually caused the injury. In the delivery room will still remain some 2 hours and the midwife will check regularly your appearance, pressure and intensity of bleeding after delivery. A great event, but remains far behind you and begin to appear first questions and dilemmas about breast-feeding and taking care of your baby.
If you get here - then your baby is very fast in your arms, and everything you might wish it - good luck!

Your Baby
Before you get your baby into his arms, midwife and / or gynecologist, and increasingly in our hospitals, your spouse or partner cut the umbilical cord, which can then be ligated. The following is the first review of the baby, which is done immediately after the birth of the first minute of life, and then repeated in the fifth minutoj life.This test (Apgar score), includes testing Kucaj heart baby, her breathing, muscle tone, reflexes and color. Each of these parameters are evaluated numerically with 0, 1 and 2 Of course it is the highest score 10, and anything above 7 is normal. So perfect Apgar score was 10/10. If the Apgar less than 7, refer to the pediatrician, the baby will continue testing on a separate ward for babies.
In addition to determining the Apgar score, the baby will of course weigh, measure its length will be as head band. Closer inspection will check the tightness of the spine, sex organs, the mobility of the hips, or turn off other irregularities.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is long, 48-51 cm, and weighs between 3500-4000 g, with the possibility of major differences.

During childbirth, to prevent the formation of coarse defects of soft tissue exit of the channel maternity, it is common (~ 60% in primigravidae) make a small incision in the perineum (the perineum) called episiotomia. An episiotomy is a surgical wound, and is therefore disposed of surgical stitching under local anesthesia.
Stitches that go outside the skin of the insoluble material, and they are usually removed third - 4 day after delivery, in any event before going home. The stitches that remain in the vagina of the soluble material (catgut), and you will melt away during the first 7 - 10 days.
To facilitate the healing process and relieve pain arising after episiotomy, sitting baths are recommended in warm chamomile tea, Calendula, Arnica, or oak bark. At first, avoid seating: either lie down or move. When sitting, if you have trouble, you sit on a cushion. This will reduce pressure on the perineum. If you're burning while urinating, try to time to pour the hot water part. Hot water dilutes the urine and thus prevent burning. 

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