Saturday, March 31, 2012

Pregnancy by week - FIRST TRIMESTER (1-15 weeks)

Pregnancy week by week / first trimester / first week
Gynecologists count pregnancy from the first day of last menstrual period, even if at this time - in relation to the moment of conception - more correct to speak of minus second week of pregnancy!

The mother
This is a time of thinking and planning pregnancy. In any case, it is recommended to avoid smoking and alcohol, as well as taking unnecessary medications. This is particularly true for chronic diseases (epilepsy), which would be potentially harmful drugs even before conception should be replaced with less harmful or harmless drug.
Among the unnecessary medication certainly not one vitamin folic acid, which is indeed recommended to take from the moment of desire for pregnancy: folic acid fact prevents certain anomalies, especially neural tube defects in embryos?
Smoking may be the reason of changes in blood vessels or placental villi, which will restrict the flow of oxygen a child. This can affect the growth of the unborn child, but also cause premature birth or complications during delivery. For the same reasons it is advisable to avoid even passive smoking or stay smoke-filled rooms.
Pregnancy, childbirth and parenting will profoundly affect your family relationships, especially with a partner.Time prior to conception should be used to talk to your partner about the changes ahead and the challenges that may arise. It is time to deal with the contrary or ambivalent feelings: a sense of doubt or uncertainty.

The planning pregnancy should visit the dentist to repair and change on the teeth and oral cavity. Ideally, make the microbiological treatment of the cervix - cervical swabs in aerobic bacteria, chlamydia and miko-/ureaplazme and implement antibiotic therapy in cases of the infection before the onset of infection.
In recent years, it is recommended to do two things: determine the level of the hormone TSH in the blood as it already does in the normal range but higher than 2.5 mU / L in the case of pregnancy is recommended substitution therapy with thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism, even subclinical type, can adversely affect fertility, the more frequent occurrence of spontaneous abortion, and negastivno affects the child's intelligence.
Other types of tests that are recommended to determine the serological tests on toxoplasmosis: determination of IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies to toxoplasma. If recovered from infection and the existence of immunity (IgG positive), more tests need not be repeated. Risk can be seronegative pregnant women - pregnant women with negative IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies. In these women, the serological tests What is needed repeated every 8 weeks during pregnancy and in the case of seroconversion to implement the appropriate antibiotic therapy to prevent the possible consequences.

Pregnancy week by week / first trimester / second week

Gynecologists count pregnancy from the first day of last menstrual period, even if at this time - in relation to the moment of conception - was correct to speak of minus first week of pregnancy!

The mother
During the reproductive life of the uterus through the menstrual cycle of preparation for fertilization every month. The first day of the cycle is the first day of menstrual bleeding, which is actually peeling the lining of the uterus. Over the next two weeks mucosal regeneration cycle performance and its preparation for pregnancy. At the same time changes occur in the ovary where the egg begins to mature. Sometime in late second weeks of the onset of menstruation in rupture of ovarian follicles (fluid-filled blisters, and which is egg) that denotes the concept of ovulation.
Ovulation is the time of greatest fertility. The egg is capable of fertilization only about 4 hours after ovulation, but sperm can live up to a week in the cervix and wait for ovulation in some way. A few interesting facts: Sexual intercourse during ovulation and certainly does not mean the onset of pregnancy - a chance for the birth of the child from the relationship at the time of ovulation is around 35%!

From puknutog follicles in the ovary formed yellow body (corpus luteum), which produces the hormone progesterone is responsible for changes in a woman's body during the second phase of the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy and early embryo development. Return hormonal response from the placenta (hormone ß-hCG) after fertilization effect on life extension and maintenance of the corpus luteum of pregnancy to full development of the placenta. Otherwise, the function of the corpus luteum disappears in about two weeks, creating a withering away of the lining of the uterus and its peeling - performs the following period.

Pay attention to your diet! Excess and deficiency in weight can affect reproductive capacity. Try before pregnancy to achieve and maintain ideal weight approximately, pregnancy is not the time for holding a child.
Avoid fatty foods and foods rich in carbohydrates or sugar. Instead, enjoy the fresh fruits and vegetables, dietary fiber which will particularly assist in Prison (shut up, or chronic constipation), which is a common problem in pregnancy.
To save an elastic skin, good digestion and circulation, make sure the sufficient fluid intake in pregnancy.
Your general well-being will facilitate not only pregnancy but also birth. Use the time before conception for the acquisition of certain physical fitness.

Pregnancy week by week / first trimester / third week

This is the week where conception occurs: one of 200 to 300 million sperm ejaculate inserted into the vagina to reach the fallopian tubes and fertilize an egg.

The mother
Threads of the second and third weeks of the beginning of the menstrual cycle is the time of ovulation and fertilization - when will be in one of your fallopian tubes to meet one of the millions of your partner's sperm and your egg. Along with the first entry of sperm into the egg, starting the chemical processes that do not allow entry to any other sperm to egg. The body and tail of sperm which has entered the egg will melt, and its nucleus containing the genetic material swells and merges with the egg nucleus.

Your Baby
Zygote - the fertilized egg will float in the fluid tubes first few hours of complete rest, and then will move her amazing division, first into two cells, then four, and in the uterus due five to seven days after fertilization at the stage of 30 cells. Clusters of cells called a morula is now, from the Latin word for mulberry and mulberry, which resembles the.

Determine the sex of your child's two out of 46 chromosomes - sex chromosomes or gonosomi. Sperm and egg each carry one Gonos. The egg has an X chromosome, and sperm can be X or Y chromosome. If an egg is fertilized the X chromosome, you'll get the girl, and if the sperm contains a Y chromosome, you'll have a boy.Gender of your child that is totally dependent on the sperm that fertilized the egg. Sperm carrying the X chromosome are larger and slower and live longer than sperm with a Y chromosome. Hence the widespread belief that we should often have sex several days before ovulation to get a girl and a boy if you love should be run during or immediately after ovulation, but not too often.

The possibility of conception will increase making love (... at least) every other day starting from the end of the previous week and during this cycle. The increase in body temperature of at least 0.6 ° C during this week indicates ovulation.

Fertilization and the division of the morula stage

Human prenatal development is divided into embionalno the fetal period. Embryonic period begins with fertilization and ends eight weeks later. According to various external and internal criteria, the embryonic period of eight weeks (56 days) is divided into 23 Carnegie stages. The division of the embryonic stages of development in the Franklin Mall introduced the 1914th in the Carnegie Institute, Washington, and George Streeter modify it, setting the stage 23. Scheme are completed O'Rahilly and Müller 1987th year, speaking about the embryonic stages or the stages of Carnegie.
First seven days of embryonic development (third week of pregnancy) covers reproductive stage (Carnegie stage 1), cell division up to the stage morula (Carnegie stage 2), the creation of blastocysts (Carnegie stage 3) and blastocyst prikvačanje the endometrium (Carnegie stage 4).
Fertilization, including sperm and the contact zone pellucida, penetration through the zona pellucida and ooplazmu, falling off the tail and sperm head swelling and discharge skundarnog polar corpuscles, a process that takes place in the oviduct. After fertilization, pronuclear formed two - male and female pronuclear and begins the first mitotic division of zygote. After finishing fifth in the beginning of the sixth cycle of blastomere mitotičkog acquire the ability to create fluid that accumulates between the cells separated by the "inner cell mass," which resulted in embrioblast and the cavity filled with fluid, characteristic of the blastocyst stage.

Pregnancy week by week / first trimester / fourth week

This is the time of implantation - burying the embryo in the lining of the uterus.

The mother
Roughly seven days after fertilization, your baby is nestling in the lining of the uterus - the endometrium, the pregnancy officially begins. At the time of implantation (21 - 22.dan cycle) can occur sparingly ichor, which represents neither a good nor a bad sign. The appearance of lymph meeting indicates embryos with tiny blood vessels in the place of burial in the lining of the uterus, which followed a day or two stops spontaneously.

Your Baby
Within hours the fertilized egg splits into dvostaničnu, then the četverostaničnu zygote. Soon your baby looks like a mulberry and mulberry - morula stage and was presented with some 30-odd stations. After four days, resulting blastocyst - a ball filled with a liquid cell, which has about one hundred stations. Although the microscopic or even can not be seen as certain organizations, the cells are arranged in a predetermined starting layers. Since I have become some of the fruit, the other will constitute a structure that will feed it.

Zygote reaches the uterine cavity and buried her in the mucous membrane between the fourth and seventh day after fertilization, although not firmly buried up to ten days. Zygote outer layer in contact with the mucous membrane of the uterus provides shoots (fringes) in the endometrium, which will allow nutrient and waste exchange between the constituents of blood of mother and growing fetus. This compound will gradually mature into the placenta or afterbirth, organ that will nourish and protect your baby next month.

Since your baby is totally directed at you and all the food received through your bloodstream, it is important to eat healthy during pregnancy.
If you pre-pregnancy and a healthy and balanced eating, during pregnancy appear only small changes in diet.Daily caloric needs increase only sometime after the 20th week of pregnancy and to the 200-300 kcal / day. It is far more important to eat well, but a lot.
Avoid foods high in fat and sugar, which contains important nutrients. A fresh, soft cheese, unpasteurized milk and undercooked, salad from fresh cabbage and various spreads may be contaminated with listeria bacteria, which causes listeriosis. This disease can cause miscarriage or birth of a dead child. Raw meat or food prepared from raw meat (meat products) and unwashed fruits and vegetables can cause toxoplasmosis - a disease that can cause blindness and brain damage and heart of a child.

Blastocyst implantation &

Carnegie Stage 3: late fifth and early sixth day of embryonic development, the embryo in the blastocyst stage of the release layer zygote - the zone pellucida, a series of expansion-contraction cycles in a process called "hatching" or "first birth".
Carnegie stage 4 marks the beginning of implantation, at this stage to blastocyst in the endometrium prikvačanja consisting of fused cells multinuklearne simplazmu.
Implantation, which means the Carnegie Stage 5, takes place in several stages, which are temporally placed in the second week of embryo development. At first the trophoblast solid, then the blood pools occur - lacunae, and by the end of this stage of the communication between endometralnih lacunae and blood vessels, which establishes the mother-fetal circulation. Embrioblast at this time differentiating the two germinal layers: the epiblast and hypoblast.

Pregnancy week by week / first trimester / fifth week

This week could be best described as waiting time. Awaiting the appearance of your periods, you may experience some signs of pregnancy like premenstrual complaints such as tension in the breasts or feeling sick.

The mother
Sometimes women instinctively know they are pregnant. The most likely reason for this feeling is the influx of large amounts of female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, as well as completely new hormones such as HPL - human placental lactogen and hCG - human chorionic gonadotropin. The level of estradiol in the blood increases during pregnancy 100 times, and estriol, and 1,000 times its pre-pregnancy levels.
During the fifth week of pregnancy appear so. uncertain signs of pregnancy. These are especially sensitive and tense breasts, and the absence of menstruation. Not every sign of pregnancy, lack of menstrual period - stress or other illnesses are often the same reasons. Due to the high levels of these "pregnancy hormone" may be a feeling of increased fatigue, and pressure in the pelvis, and increased urge to urinate.

Your Baby
Already late last week and during this simple ball - becomes a blastocyst embryo within which to begin to distinguish the three papers from which will arise in the process of gastrulation the three different types of tissue. From the inner leaves - endoderm will arise the digestive system, pancreas, liver and lungs, and the outer leaves - ectoderm nervous system, skin, hair, tooth enamel and eye lenses. The middle leaflet - mesoderm differentiation in the supporting tissues - bones and muscles, and kidneys, heart and blood vessels. The cells of each tissue to be moved so long as they arrive at the target location.
Creating embryonic leaves the embryo takes the form of a shield, and on it are different top and bottom, front and rear, and left and right sides. On the dorsal embryonic shield begins to form lines of that created in the first groove, which is then closed and forms the so-called. neural tube. From the front of the neural tube will develop the brain, and from the back of the spinal cord. At the center of the embryo begins to create the bulge is formed from which the heart begins to beat, followed by the creation of blood vessels that ingrowing to their seats.

Four weeks after the last menstrual period in the case of pregnancy in your urine can detect the pregnancy hormone hCG. Pregnancy tests are available from pharmacies - usually an indicator changes color or is provided in the field appeared colored dash or a plus sign. The recommendation is to do the test first morning urine contains the highest since hCG. Today's tests are very reliable.
Eating out does not care about the amount of calories. Rather make sure the quality and nutritional value of food intake. During pregnancy it is important to prepare and cook various dishes. Many foods have nutrients, but in different proportions. A varied diet meets the required quantities of all the necessary ingredients. Eat more and less (6 - 8 small meals), such a diet affects digestion better and more complete digestion of food.
Gastrulation - the creation trilaminarnog embironalnog disk

Third week of embryonic development - the fifth week of amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) covering Carnegie stages 6 and 7 During this period the epiblast passing numerous complex changes that lead to differentiation of the three germinal list in the designated term "gastrulation."
Carnegie stage 6 is characterized by proliferation and migration of epiblast cells towards the midline of the embryonic disc and the beginning of the "primitive streak", which grows in length until it reaches half of the embryonic disk. Primitive streak is the place to plunge into the cells that migrate from the lateral parts of the disk, which will form the mezoblast endoblast. In this way an trilaminarni embryonic disk, and this is the time when we have our first ultrasound pictures of pregnancy.

The main criterion for the Carnegie stage 7 is a continuing phenomenon notokordalnog rostrallv directly compared to the primitive node and the railroad. The embryonic disk is generally circular, oval or pear-shaped.Cells that plunge into the region of the primitive node migrate cranially along the midline and form notokordalni continuation of this process is comparable to the sliding fingers in a glove. The ultrasound images from this period are identified gestational and yolk sac.

Pregnancy week by week / first trimester / sixth week

Discovery and the realization that you are pregnant will be a joyous moment for you and your partner!

The mother
The absence of menstruation is really a great indicator that you are pregnant and occurs two to three weeks after conception. The absence of menstrual bleeding may be caused by other reasons, so check yourself pregnancy test or medical examination. This is a time when pregnancy can be seen by ultrasound: gestational (embryonic) bags measure 10 - 15 mm in diameter, and within the embryonic heart to see the basis of the fetal heart.
Pregnancy is usually divided into three periods, which are marked by the trimester or quarter. The first trimester lasts for more than 15 to weeks, during the early 12th weeks of organogenesis takes place. Late in the first trimester of all organs are formed, and from now until the end of pregnancy the child grows in length and is thicker. At this time the risk of miscarriage is greatest. The second trimester covers the period from 16 - 27 week of pregnancy and third trimester period of 28 - 40 week of pregnancy.

Your Baby
During the sixth week of pregnancy become visible to different parts of the embryo. The embryo of the original shape of the shield takes the form of letters C, a neural tube that extends along the back is now closed. Along both sides of the neural tube formed clusters of cells called Somit from which to develop the muscles and other structures of individual body segments.

Length and weight babies:
Volume of gestation (embryonic) bag is 2 - 3 ml, and your baby's length of 2 - 6 mm.

Your baby will be born forty weeks from the first day of your last menstrual period (ZM). But in such a calculated birth dates (TP) is the family of all the 3 - 5% of babies. The actual dates of birth is actually in the period between the 38th and 42 weeks of pregnancy.
Since the conception occurred only in late second or early third week of pregnancy, in the fortieth week of pregnancy your baby is only 38 weeks old.
Start creating a morphological

The fourth week of embryo development is the period between 23 - 28 days after fertilization, and includes Carnegie stages 8 - 10 This is the period during which each of the three germ papers provide the basis for a number of tissues and organs, and the first reported morphological characteristics of vertebrates.
Carnegie Stage 8 is characterized by pear-shaped embryonic disc, the start of the process and the emergence neurulacije notokordalnog and neurenteričkog channels.
During stage 9 Canegie generated neural groove which extends to the primitive line, and began raising the lateral edges of the neural plate and neural folds and create Somit. This stage is characterized by the presence of 1-3 Somit, neural groove is visible, the appearance of brain vesicles and the beginning Kucaj heart.
Carnegie Stage 10 is characterized by the beginning of the merger and formation of neural folds of the neural tube with two holes - front and rear neuroporusom. After closure of the neural tube appear two steam thickened ectoderm: auditory and lećne plakode, and the first two ports pharynx.
The ultrasound images are visible gestational and yolk sac and embryo of length CRL - "crown Rumphi length" - from head to rump 1 to 3.5 mm, the letter C shape due to bending of the embryonic disk.
Pregnancy week by week / first trimester / seventh week

Pregnancy week by week / first trimester / seventh week

The seventh week of amenorrhea is characterized by the appearance of early signs of pregnancy: nausea and often vomiting. Amenorrhea means the last menstrual period, as opposed to "real" pregnancy, which is about two weeks shorter. Hence the difference in the "popular" calculating the duration of pregnancy in relation to the height you determine pregnancy by a gynecologist!

The mother
In the first weeks of pregnancy the most common symptom is nausea and often vomiting. Regardless of what is known as morning sickness can occur at any time of day. Often there increased sensitivity to odors, some women a heightened sense of tiredness and no extra effort, and feeling irritable. Breasts are tense and sensitive.The reason for these changes is an increased level of the hormone progesterone, which creates yet corpus luteum of the ovary.

Your Baby
During the last period, the front part of the neural tube begins to extend into the bubble from which will arise from the brain that will fill your head. On both sides of their heads begin to form optic vesicles from which the baby's eyes will occur. On the surface of the embryo begin to bud small okrajine from which to develop arms and legs. At the rear the baby still see the tail. The embryo is located within the embryonic bags and surrounded it with two protective membranes (amnion and chorion).

Length and weight babies:
The baby is long from crown to rump 5-13 mm and weighing about 0.8 g

When you feel a wave of nausea to rise, sit and lean forward so your head resting between his knees.
In the morning the prevention of vomiting and other symptoms common to many women during pregnancy helps warm chamomile tea, ginger or mint. Herbal tea bags are available in all stores of food, a strainer with you to prepare your own herbal teas.
The development of pharynx arches

The seventh week of amenorrhea and fifth week of embryogenesis is a period between 29-33 days after fertilization. During this period caused subtle morphological changes, with growth dominated by the head.
Carnegie Stage 11 is characterized by the appearance 13-20 Somit, rostralnog neuroporusa hearing and bubbles that are not yet separated. Begins development of optical bubbles and sinus venosus. They appear mezonefritički channel and tubule.
During Carnegie stage 12 closes the caudal neuroporus, visible in the third arch and pharynx 21-29 Somit.Appear in upper limb buds and lung buds.
Carnegie Stage 13: Hearing the bubble is separated, lećna plakoda still does not show a dent. The appearance of the fourth ždrijelnog port. The heart formed septum primum and foramen primum. They are different left and right lung bud, base leg, and more than 30 Somit.
Carnegie stage 14 includes the creation of a small base of the brain and eye bubbles. Appears sixth pharynx arch.Upper limb buds are elongated.
Ultrasound examination reveals a gestational and yolk sac, an embryo with a length of between 2.5 - 7 mm, in which we distinguish between two bubbles brain, heart and the caudal part of the bulge, and the first buds of the upper and then lower extremities.

Pregnancy week by week / first trimester / eighth week

If you have never visited a doctor, it's time to do the next time! Gynecological care during pregnancy is called prenatal or antenatal care and screening. The ideal prenatal care includes examinations once a month to 28weeks, then plan reviews every 3 weeks, from 36th week every 2 weeks. At the time of birth of the term exams are a week or more.

The mother
The wall of the uterus is by now clearly softened that could allow the blastocyst to firmly buried. With the softening of the body of the uterus occurs thickening the cervical mucus, creating a plugin (plugin Kristellerov) in the cervical canal, which will just go with the first pangs of childbirth in late pregnancy. At gynecological examination at this time, feel the softness of a clear increase in the uterus. This increase is outside the womb is still imperceptible. A pregnancy at this time testify only problems you may have a positive pregnancy test that you have made or finding a doctor in attendance.

Your Baby
The creation of certain organs of the embryo - Organogenesis is in full swing! It begins to create embryonic digestive system, but with a present yolk sac, which at this time produces blood cells. Develop the embryonic lung, and the umbilical cord and placenta perform common functions. Begins to perceive the outline of the person opening the mouth. Appear in the upper lip and nose with the tip of the nose. On both sides of the head are present pigmented discs from which to develop the iris of the eye. Begins development of the outer ear. The development of the limbs progressing, so that a week after the formation of limb buds, they differ in two parts: the shoulder and arm area.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is about 2.5 cm long and weighing about 3 g.

In the first gynecological exam your doctor will ask about your health and illness in the family. Before you visit a gynecologist remember the date of your last menstrual period.
Ask your doctor what you do not clearly related to pregnancy. Pre-compile a list of what interests you.
Common medical abbreviations that you will encounter at this time:
ZM - last menstrual
TP - dates of birth
TT - body weight
Alb - protein (albumen) in urine
RR - Blood Pressure
CBC - complete blood count
CCS or KDS - knocking čedinjeg or child heart
SSL and CRL - crown-rump length
The sixth embryonic week

The sixth week of embryogenesis is the period between the 36th - 41 days after fertilization, which includes the Carnegie stage 15 - 17
During Carnegie stage 15 leads to overlapping bubbles lećnog ectoderm, while the development of the nasal fossa and base palms in full swing. Future cerebral hemispheres are better definirena becomes visible pigmented retina. Within the bronchial tree is rezlikuju lobar buds.
Carnegie Stage 16 is characterized by lateral deviation of the nasal fossa, fossa nazolakrimalnih appearance and foot basis. Formed the basis of cerebral epiphysis, becomes visible neurohipofizarna evaginacija. Become evident lobar bronchi.
Carnegie Stage 17: The head is relatively large, the body begins to correct. They differ nazofrontalne auricular pits and hills. They become visible fingers, lingering formation of interdigital zone. Hondrifikacija starts in the upper extremities - the humerus and radius, as in some vertebral sentra. Leads to atrophy of the embryonic tail.Begins development of buds segmental bronchi. Shown is the appendix.

Pregnancy week by week / first trimester / ninth week

Despite the nine weeks of pregnancy, the belly is still not visible!

The mother
Although the development of the embryo in an advanced stage, in your outward appearance is still no sign of pregnancy and the changes are so small that only you can see! Thus, for example, facial skin can become smoother than usual, a person bucmastije. Some pregnant women may occur and pimples. At this time levels of the hormone hCG reaches high values, causing the symptoms (nausea) usually most pronounced. Other hormones of pregnancy are related to breast become fuller, and the most vulnerable pregnant women. May be associated with increased vaginal discharge, which is not surprising given that levels of the hormone estriol increases up to 1,000 times above the values ​​outside of pregnancy.

Your Baby
With the growth in length and increasing the embryo comes to straightening your back and the reduction and later disappearance of the tail. The head of the embryo is still excessive in relation to his body, and bent the front way, in his chest. The eyes are well developed, are still wide apart, almost to the side of the head, and covered dome cap membrane. It comes to a complete disappearance of the tail. With the development of the muscles your baby begins to move. Of course these movements you can not feel - it will take a long time before they self-register. For now, the movements of the embryo are visible only when ultrasound!
Design progresses and crank pin, with an emphasis on the fists and feet. At the fists are different folds of the fingers, which were still connected. Progressing the development of the intestine, where the hose is often within the umbilical cord, which is until 12 weeks completely normal (physiological omfalokela).
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is about 3.5 cm long and weighing about 4 g.

The recommended weight gain in normal pregnancy is 10 - 12 (15) pounds. Lack or excess weight can prevent the optimal development of your baby and make it difficult pregnancy and childbirth.
All pregnant women are not given equal weight evenly and do not be alarmed if your weight gain is different from that of your friends. In the first trimester pregnant women receive one to two pounds. In the second trimester followed by weight gain of about six pounds in the last five pounds. Remember that these are only average values.
Sometimes it will cause fluid retention weight gain, which can interfere with kidney function, and in severe cases cause liver failure, heart or circulatory (pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and the like.). Often exercise and tight clothing can improve circulation.
Due to fluid retention in the body, buy a roomier clothes and sturdy bra with wide straps.
The seventh embryonic week

The seventh embryonic week period between 44th - 49 days after fertilization.
During Carnegie stage 18 the body becomes more kuboidalnog forms. Digital panel shows the creases of his fingers. Develops oronazalna membrane in the inner ear semicircular arc 1-3. The heart formed septum secundum and the foramen ovale. In male embryos begin development gonadalnog sex.
Carnegie Stage 19 is characterized by elongation and straightening of the embryo trunk. The legs provide almost straight forward. They develop wrinkles on the fingers of the feet, developing olfactory bulb and posterior corneal epithelium. Observe the cartilaginous ear capsule. Appears external acoustic canal. Maxilla and mandible. The development of hip and knee. Atrophy embionalnog tail. Rupture of the cloacal membrane.
Carnegie Stage 20: the upper limbs are long and starts bending at the elbow, pronation of the hand and the fingers separated. Nerve fibers are connected with the optical chiasm. In the metanephros the kidney visible bubbles S shape. Development gonadalnog sex in female embryos.

Pregnancy week by week / first trimester / tenth week

At this time, appearing and / or the most intense "pregnancy symptoms" - a feeling of nausea, excessive salivation, vomiting and morning.
The mother
High levels of pregnancy hormones - beta-hCG is the cause of the typical symptoms of early pregnancy: a feeling of nausea, excessive salivation, vomiting of morning. At this time the level of ß-hCG reaches values ​​of about 1 million IU / L. Which values ​​are in question, namely you imagine when you know that the production of 1 IU / L hCG need 1 million trophoblast cells? These high values ​​are maintained until 12 weeks, followed by ß-hCG levels fall to 100,000 IU / L in the 16 week of pregnancy, a value which is then maintained until the end of pregnancy.With the fall of ß-hCG levels usually stop problems with nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. If these problems continue, it is necessary to consider their other causes?
The function of ß-hCG pregnancy hormone in your body is manifold. In early pregnancy are to:
• luteotropna functions: support corpus luteum function in the ovarian production of progesterone to maintain pregnancy
• tireotropna function: the impact of pregnancy on thyroid gland, which increases its function during pregnancy by about 25%! and
• immunosuppressive functions: Together with other hormones (EPF - Early pregnancy factor of the PAF - Platteled activated factor) suppresses the immune response of pregnant women and thus prevents the rejection of the fetus as a foreign body (embryo - to remember - 50% of the gene carries the father who of the genes for a pregnant woman).

Your Baby
Most of the organs of your baby already exists in miniature form, a development plan will be completed the development of sexual organs. Despite the external genitals will see some other week, this week are the primary indifferent gonads ovaries or testes are formed, which then direct the development of their hormones external genitalia. Continued development of fists and feet, now the toe started to distinguish from the other fingers.There are taste buds and teeth.
The heart is completely developed and contains four šupljinice, two atrium and two ventricles. The brain continues to develop rapidly: occurs approximately every minute 250,000 new brain cells!
Ultrasound can follow the movements of your baby, not yet willing character.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is about 4.5 cm long and weighs about 5 g.

Addition to nausea and vomiting, hormonal changes during pregnancy can cause changes in the skin in terms trudničkih spots on the face (chloasma) and stronger pigmentation of other body parts (the areola around the nipple to the chest, the abdominal midline - linea nigra). The changes occur as a result of deeper pigmentation of the skin due to high levels of estrogen. In addition to the darker pigmentation may occur and spider nevi: small red moles are composed of very small vessels that are spider-like legs. Spider nevi resulted from the spray of very fine blood capillaries of the skin. Changes can be somewhat prevented protection from direct exposure to sunlight people! Use a face cream with high SPF.

The eighth embryonic week
The eighth embryonic week marks the thread of embryogenesis, a period is the period between the 51st - 56days after fertilization.
Carnegie stage 21 includes the following changes: the lever reaches a second, elongate the fingers, feet are reaching each other. Within the brain registers the cortical plate. In the subcutaneous tissue of the head occurs and expands the network of blood vessels. The cornea develops substantia propria. The metanephros arise glomerular capsule.
During Carnegie stage 22 developing eyelids and external ear. Formed tragus and antitragus, nasal septum, the secondary palate. Adenohipofizarna pedicle is still incomplete. Visible condensation of the scleral flap. The metanephros present a few glomeruli.
Carnegie Stage 23: The head is rounded and still makes up about 50% the size of the embryo. Formed chin, nasal fossa. The limbs izduljuju better differentiated. Humerus in the cartilaginous stage of development. The metanephros secretory tubules receive konvoluta look, there are a number of large glomeruli.

Pregnancy week by week / first trimester / 11 week

This week marks the thread of the embryonic period - ends in embryonic development - embryogenesis (organogenesis) and the fetal period begins.

The mother
With advancing pregnancy, the hormones of pregnancy, an increase in basal metabolic rate and blood volume.The greatest impact on the growth of the basal metabolic rate has increased thyroid function, whose activity under the influence of high estrogen levels rise by about 25%. About the same amount and increase the basal metabolic rate. Blood volume increases during the entire pregnancy. It is a significant increase in plasma (the liquid phase of blood), whose volume grows by 30%, while the proportion of blood cells with an increase of only 25% do not follow the increase of the plasma, which occurs due to hemodilution anemia (due to a disproportionate rise in various stages of blood ). For the same reason it is recommended to control blood test at least twice during pregnancy at the beginning, and somewhere around the 28th weeks of pregnancy.
Due to the increase in basal metabolic rate and volume of circulating blood can feel much warmer than usual, and more sweating. Ensure adequate intake of fluids.

Your Baby
Your baby's head is still its size exceeds the body, making almost half the entire length of the body. The reason for this is very early onset of brain development. Now the ears gradually moved toward the door of their place on the head. Progressing the development of other organs. The abdomen is intensively developed cancer, which often can be seen by ultrasound and umbilical cord (physiological omphalokela) which is the period of embryogenesis just fine. Intestine during the next week completely back into place in the stomach. It develops muscle layer bowel wall, thus showing that peristalsis - waves of contraction that suppress food through the gut.Completes the development of your baby's external genitalia.

Length and weight babies:
Your baby is long and 4.5 - 6.0 cm, and heavy is 8 - 10 g.

Hormonal changes during pregnancy (immunosuppressive effect of pregnancy hormones) affect the softening of the gums, easier tendency to infection, and bleeding from the gums. Do not forget regular dental hygiene.
If you visit the dentist, be sure to mention that you're pregnant - X-ray imaging is not only in this case, but generally not recommended to threatening situations (threat to life). Embryonic tissue is very sensitive to the influence of x-ray radiation as the cells divide rapidly and simultaneously specialize for different functions (cell differentiation). X-ray radiation can therefore cause a miscarriage or incidence of fetal anomalies. Of course it is different here, and effects of various doses of X-rays! With damage to the child is counted when it comes to radiation doses of 50 to 250 Gy (Gy = Gray), whereas doses below 10 Gy cause no lasting effects. In modern X-ray diagnostics of the values ​​of x-ray radiation dose almost always below 10 Gy, and in addition is almost always very precisely targeted and irradiated with covering other parts of the body, so the risk of damage to a minimum.

Pregnancy week by week / first trimester / 12 week

The period between 11 - 14 Week is a time reserved for the combined screening!
The mother
Combined screening denotes the use of ultrasound and biochemical markers in the assessment of individual risk for a pregnant woman with type kromosomopatije Down, Edwards and Patauov syndrome. It is conducted in the period between 11 - 13 +6 weeks of pregnancy.
Although the uterus has grown significantly stomach still may not be noticeable. The uterus at this time measured about 10 cm and slowly emerges from the pelvis into the abdominal cavity. By increasing cervix creates pressure on other internal organs, while the pressure on the bladder - what is the most frequent urination pregnant women manifested at the beginning of pregnancy - now easing.
From now on you should take into account the posture - the many movements that do not normally think (standing, walking, sitting) require adjustment during pregnancy. To maintain a balance of body, wear shoes with low heels or shoes without heels. Try to walk straight, without turning your feet out, without bending forward or backward. When standing relax your shoulders and straighten your back. Stretch your neck and buttocks izvijte. When lifting squat keeping your back straight and lift the burden of using the legs and thigh muscles.
Your Baby
He finally completed a deal - completed embryogenesis and your baby is fully developed. From now until the end of pregnancy, the biggest changes affecting weight gain and growth of babies. From now on, your baby is called an embryo more - than the fetus.

Fetal growth is continuing at an accelerated pace - in the last two weeks, your baby has more than doubled their weight. Continued formation of the person who is more like a human face. The development of the nails on the hands and feet within the development of fingers. The baby is very mobile and the ultrasound can be observed a sudden and powerful jerk type movements - movements are spontaneous in character, but without the will of the child. At this time the control of movement of the child is still subordinated to the nerve centers in the spinal cord and brain centers to coordinate the movements are not yet developed.
In this week of the bowel completely placed into the abdominal cavity, and if they saw before omphalocoela (presence of bowel in the umbilical cord), now the picture is lost. Was formed and identifiable external genitals, which are standard ultrasound techniques, some time will not be able to discern.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is about 6.5 cm long and weighs 10-15 g.

Not later from now on be sure to create for yourself and your baby an atmosphere of peace and relaxation!Loosen things out of your head viewing this topic - especially if you have too do with your pregnancy. Make it easy for you your business, divide the chores, avoid excessive stress.
In your household remove sources of danger.
Although not proven that microwave ovens can adversely affect child development (primarily the dust raised about the impact on the development of the eye), avoid unnecessary standing in front of the microwave oven when it / if you use it. Make sure every time that door is firmly closed.
Pay attention to warnings that are in chemical cleaners that you normally use in your household. Wear gloves if you use them, well ventilate the house after their use.
If tap water is heavily chlorinated, it is best to drink bottled water.
If you already want to start with the preparation and painting children's rooms, be sure to read the warnings on the labels, if possible, get the color without harmful ingredients. It is well planted with an additional flat - apartment set in a little green plants that absorbs harmful substances from the air.

Pregnancy week by week / first trimester / 13 week

Slow decrease in the level of ß-hCG leads to loosening of typical symptoms in early pregnancy.

The mother
Decreases slowly and stop the typical symptoms of early pregnancy, especially morning sickness, vomiting and irritability or anxiety that occur in some women. Completion period of embryogenesis, in which the risk of occurrence of miscarriage is about 15%, and taking numerous corpus luteum function by placental stabilize the flow of hormones of pregnancy and also decrease the risk of spontaneous abortion in about 10%, which remains constantly up to the end of the 28th weeks.
The most common reason for the so-called. early spontaneous abortion (abortion until the 16th week of pregnancy) is a severe embryonic / fetal basis whether the chromosome or exogenous (external) damage. Late abortion is an abortion that takes place between 16 and 28 weeks of pregnancy, the most common reasons for this are malformations of the uterus, uterine, cervical insufficiency and infection. The risk of repeated miscarriage after a miscarriage is 24% after two miscarriages and 26% after three miscarriages 36% (habitual abortion).
Blighted ovum is a form of spontaneous abortion when the bag gestational embryo does not develop.
Missed abortion is a form of spontaneous abortion with dead fetus being retained in the uterus. Is revealed by ultrasound where the fetus are intrauterine growth retardation and the absence of CCS - Type čedinjeg heart.
Signs of a miscarriage are bleeding and pain in lower abdomen during pregnancy.

Your Baby
Progressing maturation function of the placenta which delivers nutrients and oxygen, the degradation of substances transported by the fetus in the mother's bloodstream. At this time the placenta takes over hormonal function entirely ovarian corpus luteum, which is essential for maintaining pregnancy. The placenta is usually round, and during the date of birth will weigh about 500 g. There are two areas: a rough start with the chorionic villi and is deeply implanted in the lining of the uterus and the other side that is smooth and covered with a thin membrane. This membrane is continuing and expanding the entire coating the lining of the placenta inside the uterus, creating a cavity filled with fluid in which the fetus. The membrane is made up of two sheets, amnion and chorion, which are sealed. On the smooth side of placental blood vessels start to form a single umbilical artery, umbilical vein and two that make up the umbilical cord through which the fetus is related to the placenta and the mother.
He continues to design and face, especially nose and cheeks and eyelids are fused and will remain closed for nearly four months. Now, clearly distinguishes the bone tissue that is already in place, and the observed points of ossification of the bones of the head, the limbs and ribs. Enables them to handle the growth and movement of the thumb in the mouth. Your baby can now swallow small amounts of amniotic fluid and from it produce urine.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is long and 6.5 - 7.8 cm and weighs 15-30 g.

It is of utmost importance for your overall feeling well and healthy development of your child's protection against infectious diseases. Pay attention to hygiene:
In your household remove potential sources of infection:
• Wash your hands often;
• Do not use a common towel or toothbrush;
• If a family member is ill, it is necessary to frequently change bed linens and towels, and separate them monitor and bleached;
• Pass around your sick friends and acquaintances in pregnancy. Your environment will certainly have an understanding of your procedure. Well i wish you quick recovery and telephone.
• If your children receive any kind of rash, be sure to consult your pediatrician as soon as possible. The rash may indicate scarlet fever and chicken pox, which can affect your unborn baby.
• Make sure the health and vaccination of your pets.

Pregnancy week by week / first trimester / 14 week

This week in conjunction with 15th week of pregnancy marks the end of the first trimester of pregnancy.

The mother
Continuation of the gradual growth of the uterus, which is slightly raised above the pubic bone and the outside can be felt.
The largest number of pregnant women experience this and next week of pregnancy as the best period of their pregnancy, and most symptoms disappear.
Learn to enjoy your pregnancy. Find time to relax. Feelings of anxiety during pregnancy leads to muscle tension, which in turn can cause discomfort. Relaxation will help you sučelite with physical delivery efforts, and to achieve inner peace.

Your Baby
Your baby's face is more developed. We recognize the root of the nose, formed the cheeks, ears on the sides of the neck to the head and the eyes are closer together. Thyroid gland has completed its development and is ready to start creating your own hormones. In the male fetus develops in the prostate, oh female fetal ovaries descend from the stomach into a small bowl.
In this week comes to shooting fine lanugo hairs that grow almost all over the body of the fetus. It is believed that the lanugo hairs have a protective role, primarily by following vernix on the skin surface. Vernix is ​​a greasy, waxy covering and cottage cheese appearance of the skin that secretes a baby herself and creates. Lanugo hairs fall off, and vernix mostly disappears before the baby is born.
Along with the lanugo hairs show the eyebrows, the now very unclear, even by the springs and the hair on your head.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is long, 8.0 - 11.0 cm and weighs 30-60 g.

During the first trimester of pregnancy on body weight gain was slight, and then uniformly increasing at about the rhythm of 400-500 g / week during the second and third trimester, so the total profit at the end of pregnancy, some 10-12 kg.
In addition to regular weight control within the medical examinations (antenatal care), it is recommended to control additional weight on a home scale. Weigh yourself the best ever at the same time of day, eg. the morning without clothes and shoes. If the average weight gain 400-500 g / week, you are in the optimal range!
The origin of the extra pounds at the end of pregnancy:
• Child: about 3,500 g
• placenta: 500-600 g
• amniotic fluid: 1.000 g
• uterus (before pregnancy weighs only 50 g): 1.000 g
• Breast: 500 g
• extra fat: less than 1700 g
• reserved liquid: at least 2,000 g
• an additional amount of blood: about 1,500 g.
Pregnancy is not the time for holding a child! The exception is diabetes in pregnancy, when the child form and manner prescribed by the doctor. Too little calories can lead to nutrient deficiency in the mother's body resulting in a backlog or stunt the child is too small birth weight and preterm birth even.
In special cases - are also still under medical supervision - permissible deviation from the standard scheme:
• in obese pregnant women, with a controlled diet with fewer calories;
• the very young pregnant women, whose own growth and development has not yet been completed;
• for undernourished pregnant women who need food and hiperkalorijsku
• pregnant women with multiple pregnancies, whose needs are greater.

Pregnancy week by week / first trimester / 15 week

It is time to buy maternity clothes!

The mother
Now is your belly and clearly recognizable! Time and current clothing becomes too narrow and it's time to buy maternity clothes. An increase in blood volume begins to adjust your body to increased effort, especially the heart increases its performance by 20%. Growing minute, and cardiac stroke volume, which is accompanied with increased heart rate (rapid heartbeat and rapid pulse).

Your Baby
Continued development of finer skin of your baby, which at this time, thin and transparent, and through which one sees a multitude of blood vessels. Lanugo hair covering almost the entire surface of the skin babies and clearly stand out on the eyebrow hairs. Begins to grow hair on their heads, and pigment cells begin to produce black pigment. Develop further centers of ossification of the bones and bone marrow function, which takes in the creation of yolk sac blood child. The joints are all more mobile babies and babies with all the time and flexible. Now your baby can squeeze your fingers in the hand.
Length and weight babies:
Your baby is long, 10-12 cm, and weighs 50-100 g.

Most pregnant women in early pregnancy is very preoccupied with the thought of pregnancy, hopes and fears, and physical changes that occur. The result is often a loss of sexual desire and avoidance of sexual intercourse.
On completion of the first trimester of pregnancy is easing discomfort, acceptance and zaokupljenošću changes taking place, the growing desire for tenderness, which often gives life and interest in physical love. The perfect position for making love during pregnancy is one position to another, avoiding pressure on the abdomen and chest, which pregnant women may experience painful.
At the end of pregnancy in most pregnant again giving in sexual interest, mainly due to strong physical changes and therefore zaokupljenošću birth.
Fear that you could hurt a child in sexual intercourse was without merit because the child in the womb is very well protected.
In some special situations however could occur interference. Semen, as it contains prostaglandins may cause premature contractions and premature labor and time. Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances by the end of pregnancy with birth contractions caused by oxytocin. When lymph occurrence during sexual intercourse is advised to review gynecologists, although in most cases this is very good blood supply to the vagina and vulva, so that it does not have to do a serious symptom.
In these situations you should not have sex during pregnancy:
• For low seating or predležeće placenta (risk of bleeding);
• the failure of the cervix (mouth of the uterine openness);
• the occurrence of preterm labor;
• the frequent vaginal infections.
If you have any reason doctor advised to abstain from sexual intercourse, you and your partner can still maintain the physical and emotional intimacy of love and gentle caresses touching the abdomen.

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